Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations
Argentina

ISBN: 87-550-2525-0

TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE CLIMATE CHANGE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
1    INTRODUCTION
2    CLIMATE CHANGE: A PLANET CONCERN
3    THE IMPACTS OF MITIGATION
4    CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES

DIAGNOSIS OF THE ARGENTINE SITUATION
1    INTRODUCTION
2    THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT
2.1    Argentine economic development: its stages
2.2    Demographic aspects
2.3    Economic growth
2.4    Employment and income distribution
2.5    Prices, salaries and rate of exchange
2.6    The foreign sector
2.7    Conclusions
3    THE ENERGY CONTEXT
3.1    The Argentine energy system's present operation
3.2    Historic evolution of final energy consumption
3.3    Energy policies and energy supply transformation
3.4    Major energy operators
4    THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
4.1    Total CO2 emission evolution
4.2    Evolution of CO2 specific emission
4.3    Energy and CO2 emission pathways
4.4    Conclusions

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
1    INTRODUCTION
2    GENERAL METHODOLOGY FOR MITIGATION STUDIES
3    METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS

THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
1    INTRODUCTION
2    ECONOMIC CONTEXT
2.1    The globalisation process
2.2    Economic blocks formation
2.3    International trade
2.4    The financial context
2.5    World economy growth rate
3    TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXT
4    ENERGY-ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT

EXPECTED EVOLUTION OF ARGENTINE ECONOMY
1    INTRODUCTION
2    GENERAL HYPOTHESES ON THE REGIONAL AND SUB-REGIONAL SCENARIO
3    GENERAL HYPOTHESIS WITH REFERENCE TO THE NATIONAL LEVEL
3.1    The starting-point. Restructuring of production towards a more deregulated and open model
3.2    General hypotheses
4    LONG TERM MACROECONOMIC PROJECTIONS FOR THE ARGENTINE ECONOMY
4.1    The evolution of macroeconomic and demographic variables through the year 2005
4.2    Evolution of macroeconomic and demographic variables after the year 2005.

BASELINE SCENARIO
1    BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN THE ENERGY SCENARIO. INVESTORS' STRATEGY.
1.1    Domestic energy prices
1.2    Technological innovation and energy efficiency
1.3    The foreign trade of energy
2    FINAL ENERGY DEMAND: SECTORAL AND AGGREGATE ANALYSIS
2.1    Introduction
2.2    Residential sector
2.3    Commercial and public sector
2.4    Transport sector
2.5    Agriculture and cattle-raising, silviculture and fishing sector
2.6    Industrial sector
2.7    Non-energy sector
2.8    Self-consumption
2.9    Aggregate results
3    ENERGY SUPPLY IN THE BASELINE SCENARIO
3.1    The electricity industry
3.2    The gas industry
3.3    The oil industry
3.4    Primary energy consumption
4    GHG EMISSIONS IN THE BASELINE SCENARIO
4.1    CO2 Emissions
4.2    Methane emissions
4.3    NOx emissions
4.4    CO Emissions

MITIGATION SCENARIO
1    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MITIGATION SCENARIO
1.1    Sectors under analysis
1.2    The international context
1.3    Domestic prices
1.4    The foreign trade of energy
2    MITIGATION OPTIONS IN CONSUMPTION SECTORS
2.1    Transport sector
2.2    Industrial sector
2.3    Mitigation options in energy supply
3    THE FINAL CONSUMPTION IN THE MITIGATION SCENARIO
3.1    Transport sector
3.2    Industrial sector
3.3    Self-consumption
3.4    Aggregate results
4    ENERGY SUPPLY IN THE MITIGATION SCENARIO
4.1    The electricity industry
4.2    The gas industry
4.3    The oil industry
4.4    Primary energy consumption
5    GHG EMISSIONS IN THE MITIGATION SCENARIO
5.1    CO2 emissions
5.2    Methane emissions
5.3    NOx emissions
5.4    CO emissions

MITIGATION COSTS
1    INTRODUCTION
2    TRANSPORTATION
2.1    Introduction
2.2    Public transport
2.3    Cargo transport
3    INDUSTRY
3.1    Considerations on technological changes
3.2    Energy intensity
3.3    Methodology to assess mitigation costs
4    COGENERATION
4.1    Energy-productive processes
4.2    Cost calculation: methodological approach and basic hypotheses
5    ELECTRICITY
5.1    The electricity industry. Introduction
5.2    Methodological approach and basic hypothesis
5.3    Results obtained
6    FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
6.1    General
6.2    On the methodological approaches and assumptions

COMMENTS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MITIGATION ACTIONS IN ARGENTINA
1.1    Introduction
2    ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT END-USE LEVEL
2.1    Official policies
2.2    Results obtained to date
2.3    The limits of market-oriented mechanisms
3    ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ENERGY SUPPLY
4    THE PROMOTION OF NON-EMITTING ENERGY SOURCES
4.1    Policies in force
4.2    Market trends
4.3    Main barriers to the use of these sources
4.4    The promotion mechanisms

ANNEX 1:    METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN DEFINING CLIMATE MITIGATION POLICIES
1    METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN DEFINING A MITIGATION POLICY FOR ARGENTINA
1.1    Dealing with conflictive expectations
1.2    The scope of uncertainty
1.3    Recognising the economic agents and their influence on the system
2    APPROACH SUGGESTED FOR ANALYSING MITIGATION POLICIES IN ARGENTINA
2.1    Economic and social agents
2.2    The decision making criteria
3    HOW TO USE AN OPTIMISATION MODEL
3.1    The energy system representation
3.2    Decision making process and mitigation scenario formulation
3.3    GHG emission
3.4    The construction of mitigation incremental cost curves

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