Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations
Estonia

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ISBN: 87-550-2559-5

FOREWORD

LIST OF AUTHORS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND ENERGY ISSUES
1    BASIC COUNTRY INFORMATION
2    ECONOMIC BACKGROUND
3    HUMAN RESOURCES
4    FISCAL BACKGROUND
5    ENERGY SECTOR
5.1    Present situation of the Estonian energy sector
5.2    Existing energy supply and demand system
5.3    Energy resources
5.4    Security of supply
5.5    Costs of local energy resources and imported fuels
6    ENERGY POLICY
6.1    Energy sector priority issue
6.2    Energy policies prospective
7    CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES
8    CONCLUDING REMARKS

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES
1    REVIEW OF THE EXISTING COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES
1.1    Pulverised combustion of solid fuels
1.2    Fluidised bed technologies
1.3    Combined heat and electricity generation
2    POSSIBILITIES OF CO-COMBUSTION OF DIFFERENT FUELS IN NEW BOILER UNITS
2.1    Objectives of co-combustion of different fuels
2.2    Co-combustion of peat and oil shale
2.3    Co-combustion of coal and oil shale
2.4    Other co-combustion possibilities
3    CONCLUSIONS

THE INFLUENCE OF OIL SHALE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION
1    INTRODUCTION
2    THE INFLUENCE OF PARAMETERS ON CO2 EMISSION
3    CHARACTERISATION OF THE ESTONIAN OIL SHALE
4    DETERMINATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS
5    DETERMINATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE PRESSURE IN OIL SHALE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS
6    DETERMINATION OF OIL SHALE COMPOSITION DEPENDING ON THE HEATING VALUE
7    CALCIUM OXIDE BEHAVIOUR IN OIL SHALE COMBUSTION
7.1    General
7.2    Calcium carbonate behaviour at combustion in atmospheric conditions
7.3    Calcium carbonate behaviour at combustion in pressurised conditions
7.4    Oil shale heating value at combustion in pressurised conditions
7.5    Decreasing the carbonate dioxide concentration in flue gas by burning oil shale in pressurised conditions
8    TECHNOLOGIES OF BURNING THE ESTONIAN OIL SHALE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION
8.1    Pulverised firing technology
8.2    Atmospheric circulating fluidised bed combustion technology
8.3    Pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology
9    CONCLUSIONS

RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL, SOURCES AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
1    GENERAL OVERVIEW
2    OBJECTIVES
3    FIREWOOD
4    PEAT
5    PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF WOOD AND PEAT
6    HYDROENERGY
6.1    Hydroenergy resources and utilisation
6.2    The impact of hydroenergy
6.3    Cost-efficiency of hydroenergy
7    WIND ENERGY
7.1    Introduction
7.2    Prerequisites for wind energy utilisation
7.3    Estonian wind resources
7.4    Exploitation of wind resources
7.5    Perspectives for wind energy in total energy production
7.6    Development plan for starting wind energy utilisation
7.7    Economic aspects of wind energy
7.8    Case Study: Hiiumaa as a Potential Renewable Energy Island
8    CONCLUSIONS

ESTONIAN ENERGY SYSTEM AND EMISSIONS MODELLING USING MARKAL MODEL
1    MODELS USED
1.1    Short description of MARKAL model
1.2    A short description of MARKAL-MACRO model
2    GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS AND DATA DESCRIPTION
2.1    General assumptions
2.2    Fuel price projections
2.3    Existing technologies and fuel supply options
2.4    New technology options
2.5    Emissions constraints
3    BASELINE ENERGY DEMAND PROJECTION
3.1    Economic growth and energy intensity
3.2    Principles of making MARKAL demand projections
3.3    Baseline sectoral energy demand projections
4    HIGH ENERGY DEMAND GROWTH SCENARIO
4.1    Economic growth and energy intensity
4.2    Sectoral energy demand projections
5    MITIGATION SCENARIOS AND CO2 REDUCTION OPTIONS
5.1    Modelling of mitigation scenarios
5.2    Modelling of CO2 reduction options
6    MARKAL RESULTS OF SCENARIOS WITH BASELINE ENERGY DEMAND GROWTH
7    MARKAL RESULTS OF SCENARIOS WITH HIGH ENERGY DEMAND GROWTH
8    MARKAL-MACRO RESULTS
8.1    Model input data
8.2    Model results
9    COST OF CO2 REDUCTION
10    CONCLUSIONS FROM MODELLING

MACROECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS
1    DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS
2    CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF ECONOMY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEMAND OF ENERGY
3    PRICES OF OIL SHALE, OTHER FUELS AND ELECTRICITY
4    THE FIXED EXCHANGE RATE AND THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS PROBLEM
5    THE FOREIGN TRADE BALANCE
6    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FOREIGN TRADE BALANCE AND ENERGY
6.1    Base demand scenario
6.2    High energy demand growth scenario
7    SHARE OF ENERGY PRODUCTION IN THE GDP
8    ENERGY INTENSITY OF INDUSTRIES
9    INVESTMENTS AND SAVINGS
10    ECONOMIC INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TAXATION SCHEMES
11    THE MARKET STRUCTURE AND TAX BURDEN
12    EMPLOYMENT
13    ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
14    ENERGY CONVERSION METHODS AND MITIGATION OF GHG
15    CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS

REPORTING FORMS

REFERENCES