Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa
Tanzania Country Study

ISBN: 87-550-2428-9

Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Geographical location and climate
1.3 Demographic and socioeconomic profile
1.3.1 Demography
1.3.2 Economy
1.3.3 Relevance of land-based sectors to the economy

2 Overview of Other Climate Change Studies
2.1 Inventories of greenhouse gas emission
2.2 Greenhouse gas mitigation
2.2.1 Sectoral assessment
2.2.2 Macroeconomic analysis
2.2.3 Ranking of the mitigation options
2.3 Vulnerability and adaptation assessment
2.4 National Action Plan on Climate Change

3 Overview of Forestry and Land-Use Sector
3.1 Dynamics of the forestry and land use-sectors
3.1.1 Vegetation distribution and change
3.1.2 Distribution of forest resources
3.2 Deforestation, its causes and impacts
3.2.1 Forest clearing for permanent cropland and pasture
3.2.2 Forest clearing for energy supply
3.2.3 Impacts of deforestation and land degradation
3.3 Contribution of the forestry sector to the economy
3.4 Greenhouse gas emissions from forestry and land-use
3.4.1 Categories of land-use changes resulting into GHG emissions
3.4.2 The 1990 estimation of GHG emissions from forestry and land use

4 The Energy Situation and its Relationship to Forestry
4.1 Energy balance
4.2 Energy demand-supply patterns
4.3 Energy supply from forest resources
4.4 Biomass energy use

5 Policies and Assumptions for the Scenarios
5.1 Main assumptions for the construction of the scenarios
5.2 Land policy and legislation
5.3 Forestry policies and legislation
5.4 Land tenure policy and legislation
5.5 Population policy, urbanisation and its impacts
5.5.1 Population distribution
5.5.2 Rural-urban population distribution
5.6 Environmental policies and legislation
5.6.1 The National Environmental Action Plan
5.6.2 The National Environmental Legislation
5.7 National Energy Policy

6 The ‘Catastrophic Scenario’
6.1 Definition of the Catastrophic Scenario
6.2 Main assumptions underlying the Catastrophic Scenario
6.3 Forestry and land-use situation under the Catastrophic Scenario
6.4 Greenhouse gas emissions under the Catastrophic Scenario

7 The ‘Enhanced TFAP’ Scenario
7.1 Programmes and projects under the enhanced TFAP scenario
7.1.1 Land husbandry
7.1.2 Forest management
7.1.3 Forest Industries Programme
7.1.4 TFAP targets for energy from forest resources (bioenergy)
7.2 Forestry and land-use situation under the enhanced TFAP scenario
7.3 GHG emissions from enhanced TFAP Scenario
7.3.1 GHG emissions from land-use changes

8 The Mitigation Scenario
8.1 Overview of the forestry mitigation scenario
8.2 Criteria for identification of mitigation options
8.3 Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP)
8.4 Implementation of COMAP
8.4.1 Sao Hill reforestation option
8.4.2 An option of extension and replanting of other industrial forest plantations
8.4.3 Natural/catchment forest protection option
8.4.4 Energy production from forestry products (bioenergy option)
8.5 Discussion of the results of COMAP
8.6 Wood energy technologies in the residential sector
8.6.1 Charcoal Stoves
8.6.2 Charcoal kilns
8.6.3 Dissemination of improved charcoal stoves
8.6.4 Dissemination of improved wood stoves
8.6.5 Crop residue stoves
8.6.6 Dissemination of efficient charcoal kilns
8.6.7 GHG emissions from improved biomass energy end-use devices
8.6.8 GHG emissions from fuel switching and rural electrification options

9 Conclusions

10 References