A Newsletter of UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) and UNEP

December 2010

Increasing Access to the Carbon Market
Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries

For the last eight years, UNEP and UNEP-RISOE have been instrumental in bringing new players into the growing carbon market. While the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has already given birth to thousands of energy projects the administrative hurdles can be daunting in developing nations where capacity is lacking. The UNEP/UNEP Risoe Centre Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM) and a number of other programmes have helped remove or minimize barriers so that developing nations can more easily enter the carbon market and reap the benefits of the CDM. By building capacity and enhancing awareness at a national, regional and international scale, these programs are part of the international Nairobi Framework initiative to enhance regional distribution of CDM activities.

A major new program under implementation by UNEP Risoe is the CDM Capacity Building Programme of the MEA ACP Project, a project that focuses on African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries. It is part of a larger capacity building for Multilateral Environment Agreement (MEA) project for ACP countries implemented and coordinated by UNEP, in a partnership with the European Union and the ACP Secretariat. The CDM program targets 12 countries and three regions: Angola, Botswana, Côte d’Ivoire, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, and São Tomé and Príncipe in Africa; Belize, Cuba, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; and Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa in the Pacific.

The programme has organized and held several practical, hands-on training workshops on both national and regional levels, assisting experts and consultants with CDM project identification, design, and implementation. Capacity building activities have also taken place in local financial institutions, helping to create CDM-friendly regulatory and business environments. Documented results and impacts include an increase in Project Idea Notes (PINs) and Project Design Documents (PDDs) in national portfolios. By creating a national portfolio of potential CDM projects, the programme has also promoted host countries as attractive CDM destinations. Other program activities include publications and guidebooks, as well as working papers and technical tools.

Recently, a multi-lingual website for the program has gone online: www.acp-cd4cdm.org. Available in English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese, the site offers information on past and future workshops, publications, participating countries, and their CDM projects. Visitors can also access workshop presentations, a programme calendar, and a new page describing the latest project developments.

Contact: Miriam Hinostroza, Head of the Energy and Carbon Finance Programme milh@risoe.dtu.dk

India Takes on the Challenge of Low-Carbon Transport

A new UNEP- project will help put India on the road to low carbon transport. Launched on November 12, 2010, this €2.5 million venture, funded by the German International Climate Initiative, will tackle the new challenges posed by population and vehicle increases in India. While India ranks as the world’s fourth largest greenhouse gas emitter, it has the globe’s second largest population, putting its per capita emissions rate well below the world average. That said individual vehicle use has soared in recent years, leading to congestion, pollution, accidents, and increased CO2 emissions. To help India take a more sustainable approach to future transport needs, the project will focus on developing a national action plan for low-carbon transport and low-carbon mobility plans for up to four Indian cities. Key local partners include the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad, CEPT University in Ahmedabad, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi.

Contact: Subash Dhar, sudh@risoe.dtu.dk

Latin American Carbon Forum

The mood was upbeat at the Latin American Carbon Forum, which was held from October 13–15, 2010 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The event brought together more than 600 top experts, policymakers, and private sector representatives from 52 countries to discuss their experiences in areas such as energy efficiency, tourism, and transport, as well as the latest developments in carbon finance. Despite uncertainties of the global economic outlook, discussions revealed a high level of vitality in the region regarding development and financing of greenhouse gas reduction activities.

“If we for a moment change perspective at take a look at the carbon market and the Clean Development Mechanism bottom up, then it’s difficult to remain pessimistic”, says Joergen Fenhann, UNEP Risoe Centre. “In spite of slow progress of the global climate negotiations and the uncertainties of what a post 2012 regime will mean for the carbon market and the mechanisms, there seems to be a vibrant, dynamic and committed carbon market. If we look at the CDM alone, then 124 new projects entered the pipeline in October 2010, the highest number on a monthly basis so far.”

The Forum was co-organized by UNEP, UNEP Risoe Centre, the Word Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Latin American Energy Organization, the International Emissions Trading Association, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

CDM Green Facility – A “Learn by Doing” Approach to Capacity Building

Designed and implemented by UNEP-RISOE and funded by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the CDM Green Facility is a unique programme that offers an open capacity development framework for CDM development in some of the least developed countries in Africa. Using a “learn by doing” approach, the programme seeks to create a solid foundation for future CDM projects based on the concept that project development and capacity building must go hand in hand.

Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Zambia were beneficiaries of the first phase of the facility, which lasted from 2006 to 2009.

Experience from Phase I showed a need for close support and monitoring at every stage of the project development process. For this reason, UNEP Risoe Centre is taking a project-driven approach to the Green Facility’s Phase II, which will work even more intensively with a few selected projects in each of the participating countries. In addition to the usual capacity building workshops, experienced consultants will be attached to each individual project hey will work in close cooperation with local experts, taking them through each stage of the project development process, so they can learn by doing. Students and professors from local universities will also be invited to participate in the process, with the aim of creating a pool of qualified national experts.

The Green Facility’s Phase II will continue its engagement with African countries, but will also benefit the Maldives, where UNEP Risoe Centre conducted a CDM scoping mission in August. The study concluded that capacity building in the Maldives should focus on supporting the Designated National Authority, and raising awareness of the CDM’s potential among project developers and owners. While workshops will be held, the Maldives mission will continue to emphasize the Green Facility’s “learn by doing” approach to capacity building.

Contact: Joergen Fenhann, jqfe@risoe.dtu.dk

From Waste to Sustainable Development

Sustainable growth, reduced emissions of potent greenhouse gases and compost for the fields. These are some of the benefits the residents living in Ghana’s capital Accra will harvest when a new CDM project takes off.

When you are heading out of Ghana’s capital Accra the peri-urban low-cost settlements become more and more dominant, as you approach the outskirts of town. Until you turn and enter the Zoomlions company compound. Here everything is new and modern - and here the waste from Accra residents will in the future be converted into electricity to local consumers, domestic growth and global green conscience. Zoomlion, a private company in Accra, responsible for collecting 60% of the city’s household waste.

The collaboration between Zoomlion and UNEP Risoe is one of the outputs of the Green Facility, a project under the Energy and Carbon Finance programme, now embarking on a second phase where the URC team will work with Zoomlion enabling them to take their CDM ideas further into a full Project Design Document (PDD) to be submitted to the CDM Executive Board.

Taking Technology Needs Assessments a step further

The Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project funded by GEF and implemented by UNEP and the UNEP Risoe Centre has progressed rapidly with assisting country partners identify their technology needs and possible implementation barriers regarding climate change mitigation and adaptation,. The final aim of the project is for the national teams to develop Technology Action Plans (TAPs) designed to enable and facilitate diffusion and transfer of the selected technologies.

The project thus takes TNAs a step further than mere producing a wish-list of technologies. The project will lead to the development of national TAPs that prioritize technologies, recommend diffusion frameworks, and identifies suitable technology transfer projects and their financing linkages. The TAP also offers practical actions for removing policy, finance, and technological barriers.

The first phase of the TNA project engages 15 countries with a regional spread between Africa, Asia and Latin America. A second phase with another 21 countries will be started up in 2011.

Meanwhile, the first regional workshops in September provided country teams with hands-on training and presentations aimed at building capacity and awareness regarding the TNA and TAP process. Workshops were held in Lima, Peru (September 22–24), Bangkok, Thailand (September 15–17), and Dakar, Senegal (September 21–23). Focus was on cost efficiency methodologies; multicriteria analysis and financial assessment tools, as well as training in facilitating stakeholder consultations. Participant feedback indicated an increased understanding of the objectives and implementation process of the project, and showed that the workshops served well as a forum for sharing TNA experiences.

“Cleantech” related activities form an increasing part of the project portfolio within the Cleaner Energy Development program at URC, and over the coming months UNEP Risoe Centre will for example assist the UNEP Regional Office for Latin American and Caribbean (ROLAC) with the implementation of REGATTA, a regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Action on Climate Change in Latin America and Caribbean.

Contact: J.P. Painuly, jypa@risoe.dtu.dk

ACAD Awards its First Grants to “Green” Energy Projects in Africa

The African Carbon Asset Development (ACAD) facility has awarded its first grants to 7 innovative low carbon projects in Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda and South Africa. As the first project development facility exclusively dedicated to boosting the African carbon market, ACAD is a private-public partnership between UNEP, UNEP Risoe Centre, Standard Bank, and the German government’s International Climate Initiative.

ACAD takes a new approach towards capacity and market development, sharing costs and risks with African financial institutions such as Standard Bank. Offering a combination of technical assistance, grants, transactional guidance, and preferential access to corporate finance, the facility gives project developers and bankers working on carbon finance projects a place to go for help when trying to gain access to the burgeoning carbon market. “Through our seed funding and outreach activities we seek to empower Africa’s green entrepreneurs struggling to access the early-stage finance and technical support they need to succeed,” says Glenn Hodes, Senior Energy Economist at UNEP Risoe Centre.

The seven ACAD grant recipients were:

Contact: Glenn Hodes, gsho@risoe.dtu.dk

Banking and Finance Community Meet at African Banker’s Carbon Forum

Over 150 participants from 20 countries attended the 2nd session of the African Banker’s Carbon Finance and Investment Forum, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, November 4–5, 2010. Organized by ACAD, UNEP and UNEP Risoe Centre, Standard Bank, and the Development Bank of South Africa, the forum highlighted the need to create public-private partnerships that develop skills and opportunities in order to unlock the huge potential of Africa’s green economy. “Entrepreneurs can transform markets, but support for eco-entrepreneurship remains weak in many countries, particularly across Africa, pointed out Brigitte Burnett, CSR Director at Nedbank and Chair of the UNEP FI African Task Force. “Developing private sector skills and mainstreaming the concepts across commercial finance and investment are key to realizing Africa’s abundant renewable energy and climate mitigation potential.”

FIRM: A Quick Start on NAMAs

UNEP’s “Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation” Programme (FIRM) will assist six to eight developing countries strengthen their national mitigation plans and strategies and get a “quick start” on technology-based mitigation activities. This will reduce emission of greenhouse gases in ways that also contribute to meeting national development goals, such as creating jobs, enhancing energy security, and reducing the local environmental impacts of conventional energy technologies. FIRM is funded by the Danish Government as part of its contribution to the “fast track” funding pledged in the Copenhagen Accord.

“Quick start” activities are technology-based, high-priority mitigation actions that are compatible with the evolving concept of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions, or NAMAs. FIRM will provide technical advice and institutional capacity-building services to national energy and environment agencies (and their stakeholders) with the aim of helping design and then implement specific national mitigation activities within a NAMA framework. The goal is to achieve relatively short-term results while strengthening institutions and demonstrating approaches that can be replicated in other countries. UNEP Risoe Centre is currently assisting the UNEP Regional Office in Latin America and Caribbean (ROLAC) developing knowledge tools which aims a further strengthening the development and implementation of the NAMAs in Latin America.

FIRM will be implemented by UNEP’s Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) and supported by the UNEP Risoe Centre.

Contact: John Christensen, Head of UNEP Risoe Centre, joch@risoe.dtu.dk

Africa–EU Cooperation on Energy Access Gets Boost from CEMA

Despite hundreds of projects, promising R&D, and increased economic incentives and financing for energy access, Africa is still in danger of not meeting its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), largely due to inadequate energy infrastructures, goods, and services. One critical barrier is a lack of institutional capacity to implement the chosen policy paths or plans. Capacity Enhancement and Mobilisation Action for Energy in Africa (CEMA) was designed to plug this policy gap and enhance African policymakers’ capacity to design, implement, and monitor programmes aimed at increasing energy access for Africans, particularly those living in rural areas. A collaboration between the EU Energy Initiative (EUEI), UNEP, and UNEP Risoe, CEMA is a four-year project that supports the Africa–UE Partnership, and seeks to enhance African–EU stakeholder dialogue, particularly at a sub-regional level, through policy engagement, studies, information dissemination, and targeted capacity building.

Smoothing out the bumps in the road to African energy access was a major theme during CEMA’s third regional workshop, held in Nairobi, Kenya from August 31–September 2, 2010. Hosted by the African Centre for Technology Studies and organized by UNEP, one of the workshops primary goals was developing SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound) energy action plans that CEMA can help initiated during its four-year lifespan (2009–2012). Hopefully, once these plans are set in motion, participating countries will be able to sustain the momentum well beyond the CEMA project cycle.

Delegates came from 11 countries in southern and eastern Africa: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Lesotho, Namibia, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Swaziland, Malawi, and Mali. Most participants were senior representatives of national energy departments, though delegates from regional institutions and NGOs attended as well.

Several important issues surfaced during the discussion process for creating the action plans. Among these were the need for policy review, mobilizing resources and funds, sharing best practices in more regional workshops, developing a platform for sharing information about renewable energy technologies, and training on all aspects of the energy value chain.

Establishing a stronger connection between African and EU stakeholders was another significant theme. In order to improve dialogue, participants highlighted the importance of training and capacity building that specifically addresses knowledge of EU instruments and structures, as well as communication and negotiation skills.

Sharing knowledge is a vital component of the CEMA programme, and its Kibesa web-based knowledge-sharing database is an essential tool. Built on an interactive “wiki” platform, the site allows registered members to share their input and learn about various energy interventions, funding opportunities, and technologies. Kibesa also collects information and links on many EU development agencies, providing a one-stop centre for a wide range of energy access data.

For more information, please visit http://cemafrica.net and http://kibesa.wikispaces.com

Contact: Gordon Mackenzie, Head of Cleaner Energy Development, goma@risoe.dtu.dk

New CDM Knowledge tool: the CDM Technologies & Methodologies Platform

The upcoming knowledge sharing tool, www.cdm-meth.org, is a free of charge user-friendly platform that thoroughly established the link between CDM project types, technologies and methodologies. This focus fills a knowledge gap within the CDM and will help potential CDM stakeholders getting an overview of technologies, the applicable methodologies and a general perspective through concentrated statistics of all CDM project types in any given sector. Building on the categorization of CDM Projects of the UNEP Risoe Centre CDM/JI pipeline data base, which categorizes 25 types and more than 100 subtypes of CDM projects; the website provides snapshot information about most technologies relevant for emissions reduction and relate them to the 169 approved methodologies so far applied in CDM projects. “CDM Technologies & Methodologies” provides specific and clear information on:

“CDM Technologies and Methodologies” is further intended as a platform for exchange of methodology related experience that allow practitioners improve their understanding of different methodologies’ advantages and limitations. The platform will be launched during COP 16, during the CDM event on 1 December 2010, 3:00 – 5:00 pm.

New Online Tool for Finding the Right Methodology and Technology Match

Since the creation of the CDM, numerous methodologies have been developed for emission reduction technologies, and it is easy for project developers to lose track of the different options. In order to address this problem, UNEP Risoe Centre has launched a new website featuring a tool for identifying which methodologies are most suitable for each relevant emission reduction technology. By simply entering an economic sector or an existing methodology, project developers can use the Technology and Methodology Selection Tool to find a wealth of information on which methodologies have been used or suggested for a given technology. The tool is based on data from UNEP Risoe’s CDM pipeline, and is constantly updated with the latest input on CDM project development.

For more information: www.cdm-meth.org

Agro-Industries as a Conduit to Energy Access for Rural Communities

For rural residents in developing countries, energy access can transform lives and livelihoods. In countries where large portions of the population live in rural areas with little or no modern energy options, electricity can mean education, medical services, income generation, and a whole range of other activities that help alleviate poverty. For this reason, the need for electrification in these areas is urgent, as is the need for innovative ideas that are both feasible and fundable.

Agro-industries are a crucial component in growing economies, and there has been increasing interest in using local renewable energy resources to power their facilities and fill the energy gaps left by unreliable grid sources. Poverty Alleviation through Cleaner Energy from Agro-Industries (PACEAA), a project coordinated by UNEP Risoe, has laid the foundation for using the surplus renewable energy produced by agro-industries to bring electricity access to surrounding rural communities.

Through a combination of capacity building, training, and detailed rural energy planning, PACEAA helped develop the tools, policies, and plans necessary to initiate this unique public-private partnership. Though the three-year PACEAA programme concentrated on small hydroelectric projects in East African tea-growing regions, the PACEAA concept can be applied to many other forms renewable energies produced by agro-industries all over the world. Currently, floriculture, horticulture, dairy farms, and sugar processers are investing in renewable energies such as biogas, biomass, and waste cogeneration. While the generation methods may differ, the basic concept remains the same: using surplus energy to bring electricity to rural villages with the aim of advancing development goals and improving quality of life.

Contact: Gordon Mackenzie, Head of Cleaner Energy Development, goma@risoe.dtu.dk

UNEP-RISOE Centre increases focus on Climate Change

A new program structure has been put in place at the UNEP Risoe Centre reflecting an increased focus on climate change. The new structure reflects both the gradual expansion to now 40 staff members as well as UNEP’s overall Climate Change priorities. The centre is now organized in three independent but interlinked programs:

The project management functions have also been expanding and a separate Unit for Project management and communications has been created to support program managers and the Head of Centre. The Unit is leading the implementation of a new Result Based Management reporting framework.

The new structure facilitates focused engagement with UNEP on key priorities relating to energy sector mitigation, REDD and adaptation. With the new structure, the Centre will aim to strengthen its position as a leading international research and advisory institution on energy, environment, climate and sustainable development working in close partnership with UNEP, national and international organizations and developing country partner institutions.

Contact: John Christensen, Head of UNEP Risoe Centre, joch@risoe.dtu.dk

Upcoming Publications

Coastal Flooding, Erosion and Climate Change: Technologies to Reduce Impact

UNEP-Risoe presents the first in a new series of TNA guidebooks at the side event at COP 16 in Cancun on November 29, 2010. The new “Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation” series will be kicked off with a publication launch of the guide on “Technologies for climate change adaptation - Coastal Erosion and Flooding”, which covers 13 major adaptation technologies that can reduce the impact of coastal erosion and flooding due to climate change. Other guidebooks will be launched during 2011 and will cover technologies relating to the agriculture, building, transport, and water sectors.

Perspectives 2010: Pathways for Implementing REDD+: Experiences from Carbon Markets and Communities

This year, the publication reflects the current experiences about implementing REDD+ activities at project and community levels and goes beyond opportunities afforded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) by including voluntary markets. The articles presented discuss and propose ideas about how to create incentives to participate in REDD+, its implementation, and possible financing; how to involve the private sector; what are the experiences from the carbon markets, and present ideas on how to engage communities in REDD+. The authors have been carefully selected to reflect a mix of different perspectives from the private sector, country negotiation teams, research institutions, and carbon market organizations. They share their insights and ideas on various important aspects and issues for the debates on a global REDD+ mechanism in the ongoing climate negotiations.

The Carbon Markets Perspectives 2010 is produced with financial assistance by the European Commission, through its joint UNEP/EU Program for Capacity Building related to Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Countries, of which the CDM forms part.

The 2010 Carbon Market Perspectives, is available at

Upcoming Events

TNA Side Event at COP 16, Cancun
November 29, 2010, 6:00 – 8:00 pm
Venue: Westin Hotels and Spa, Room: Hidalgo

During the event three countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America will present their progress so far under the TNA project, as well as their aspirations and expectations for the future. A UNEP/GEF TNA side event at this year’s COP 16 in Cancun, Mexico, the presentation will feature representatives from Senegal, Cambodia, and Costa Rica, who will share their experiences and future hopes regarding the TNA process, followed by a brief question and answer session. The side event also includes a general overview of the project and the role of TNAs in facilitating technology transfer, and will conclude with the launch of a new TNA guidebook published by UNEP Risoe Centre: , Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Coastal Erosion and Flooding

Carbon Finance and the CDM Event at COP 16
December 1, 2010, 3:00 – 5:00 pm.
Venue: Westin Hotels and Spa, Room: Rivera

The UNEP Risoe Centre’s side event will offer an opportunity for participants to get updated on recent developments under UNEP’s Programme for Carbon Finance and the CDM. During the side event, selected panelists will discuss issues of crucial importance in the current carbon markets while presenting progress on implementing the ACP-CD4CDM and ACAD by selected participating countries. As part of supporting capacity development efforts, two new publications will be launched by UNEP and its Risoe Centre at the side event: Perspectives 2010 on “Pathways for implementing REDD+: experiences from carbon markets and communities” and a new tool developed to support carbon market practitioners and policy makers on selecting CDM methodologies and technologies.

Expert Workshop:
Clean Energy Access for All
Eradicating global energy poverty

Organized by Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD)

Tuesday, December 7, 2010, 9:00 am – 4:00 pm
Venue: Westin Hotel and Spa, Room: Juarez

The Global Network on Energy and Sustainable Development (GNESD) is holding an Official Side Event at the upcoming Convention of Parties (COP) 16, Cancun, Mexico. This GNESD Side Event is an Expert Workshop entitled ‘Clean Energy Access for all: eradicating global energy poverty’. This will be done in collaboration with the International Energy Agency (IEA) and several United Nations Agencies.

New Staff

Lea Ravnkilde Moeller

Lea holds a Master of Forestry from Faculty of Life Science, Copenhagen University. The overall objective of Lea’s Master in Forestry is sustainability; economics, ecology and society. Lea has created a profile with special focus on economics, project and conflict management. Prior Lea has experience from her work in the Forest and Nature Agency in the Ministry of the Environment, Denmark and teacher assistant in several master courses at Forest and Landscape, Faculty of Life Science, Copenhagen University. At UNEP Risoe Centre she is a member of the Energy and Carbon Finance Group.

Emmanuel Ackom

Emmanuel joined UNEP Risoe Centre URC on 1st October ,2010. He holds a PhD in Environment and Resource Management from the Brandenburg Technical University (BTU), Germany with a Post doctoral and Research Associate experience from the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada. Emmanuel has been working on the techno-economic and environmental issues of renewable energy technologies. In the past, working for the IEA Bioenergy (Task 39), his research led him to focus more on the sustainability issues of biofuels. At the UNEP Risoe, he will continue his work in the biofuel sustainability area and will also be engaged in assignments in the general renewable energy arena. He is Project Manager of GNESD and a member of the Cleaner Energy Development Programme at UNEP Risoe Centre.

James A. Haselip

James joined UNEP Risoe Centre on 1st September, 2010. He holds a PhD in Energy Policy from Imperial College, London, and has used a range of qualitative and quantitative methods to conduct research and analysis. To date, his academic work has focused on the political economy of energy market reform and natural resource management in developing countries, particularly in Latin America. His non-academic work has largely taken the form of risk analysis, in addition to a few journalistic assignments. At UNEP Risoe Centre he is a member of the Cleaner Energy Development Group.

E+ provides information on the activities at URC and UNEP. The views expressed here do not necessarily represent those of UNEP, Risoe National Laboratory - DTU or Danida. Back issues can be found at www.uneprisoe.org/newsletters.htm. To receive an electronic or printed copy of E+, please register on our website www.uneprisoe.org or contact Pia Riis at pirh@risoe.dtu.dk. For all other information or comment, please contact the editor, Mette Annelie Rasmussen (meta@risoe.dtu.dk).

UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable development (URC), Risoe National Laboratory - DTU, P.O. box 49, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Tel +45 4632 2288, Fax +45 4632 1999, www.uneprisoe.org

From 1 January 2007, Risoe National Laboratory, the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, the Danish National Space Center and the Danish Transport Research Institute have been merged with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) with DTU as the continuing unit.

UNEP Energy Programme, Division of Industry, Technology and Economics, 15 rue de Milan, 75441 Paris Cedex 09, France Tel: +33 (0) 1 4437 1429, Fax: +33 (0) 1 4437 1474, www.uneptie.org/energy