September 2003

A Newsletter of URC and UNEP

SEFI: Creating the Climate for Change

“instead of climate change we need to create the climate for change”
Klaus Töpfer
Executive Director, UNEP

A new project to help the finance sector increase investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency will be launched on October 20th at the UNEP FI 2003 Global Roundtable .With support from the United Nations Foundation (UNF), UNEP’s Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative – or SEFI – will help financiers overcome information and market barriers preventing them from considering investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency as key components of secure and sustainable energy systems. More than 600 financiers attending the conference will hear how SEFI is a direct response to two of the world’s most pressing issues – energy security and climate change.

Supporting the new initiative, UNEP’s Executive Director, Klaus Töpfer, says “instead of climate change we need to create the climate for change”. The economic losses from climate change alone were described by a group of major global financial corporations as “a major risk to the global economy” in a landmark 2002 UNEP Financial Initiatives study.

SEFI programme manager, Eric Usher, explains that although sustainable energy technologies such as solar cells and wind generators have advanced rapidly, financiers are still adopting a “wait-and-see” approach, mainly because they lack the information, experience and the financial tools needed to quantify, mitigate and hedge project and financial risks.

“For developing countries in particular, the reliance on fossil fuels and centralised infra–structure will not serve the vast majority of people in rural areas where the economic benefits of a modern energy system are elusive, although the environmental costs from using low quality fuels such as dung, coal and kerosene are not,” says Usher.

SEFI will address renewable energy and energy efficiency investments in both developed and developing countries, including climate change and carbon trading activities related to sustainable energy. SEFI will do this by:

• Providing information, including policy frameworks within financial institutions for sustainable energy investing, and risk management tools that lower barriers to investment in this sector;
• Facilitating networks between bankers, insurers, project developers and investors to share experiences, build alliances and promote new financing initiatives similar to those of UNEP FI in the area of environmental finance.
• Developing and promoting partnerships, such as joint FI/UN initiatives, with and within the finance sector to launch innovative financial products tailored to sustainable energy investments, including incentives to develop new financial products in regions of the world currently without access to modern energy services.

Contact: Eric Usher, UNEP Energy, tel:+33 (0)1 4437 7614,

GEF Funds New Transport Initiative

The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has recently approved the funding of the first phase of Network for Environmentally Sustainable Transport in Latin America and the Caribbean, NESTLAC. This project, implemented by the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC), aims to disseminate, promote and facilitate environmentally sustainable transport (EST) options in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region.

In the first phase to be completed by the end of the year, a network to conduct all activities will be established for the LAC region. Participating countries include El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Chile.

“NESTLAC will help to increase awareness and to facilitate environmentally sustainable transport options in t he participating countries,” says URC’s Jorge Rogat. Special emphasis will be placed on land-use planning, non-motorised transport, transport demand management and rapid transport by bus in the region.

Contact: Jorge Rogat,URC, tel:+45 4677 5133,

UNEP Developing Energy Handbook for Legislators

Responding to requests from developing countries, UNEP is compiling a handbook to guide legislators who are developing and adapting laws to encourage the use of sustainable energy resources. The Sustainable Energy Legislator’s Handbook will be co-authored by Lal Kurukulasuriya, Chief of the Environmental Branch within UNEP’s Division of Policy Development and Professor Richard Ottinger, Dean Emeritus Professor of Law at Pace University who worked on the original US PURPA legislation (allowing independent electricity generators access to utility grids) while serving in the US Congress.

Kurukulasuriya says the idea for the publication evolved from other UNEP work in this area. “Indonesia, for example, used UNEP technical and legal assistance to strengthen the country’s natural resource management legislation, which has an impact on a broad spectrum of natural resources.”

The publication will contain annotated checklists to help legislators identify the key environmental issues involved with every source of energy and determine what issues need to be addressed and how such issues have been dealt with in other countries. “The book will hopefully help legislators to ask the right questions so they don ’t wake up in a few years and find they have tonnes of toxic waste to deal with,” says Ottinger.

The Sustainable Energy Legislator’s Handbook is due for release in mid-2004.

Contact: Lal Kurukulasuriya,UNEP, tel:+254 20 623478,

Energy Management Funded for Czech Republic and Slovakia

The UNEP Energy project EMPRESS (Energy Management and Performance Related Energy Savings Scheme) received approval in August of US$2 million in GEF funding. The project’s main aim is to promote the proven industrial energy management tool Monitoring and Targeting –or M&T –in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

UNEP Energy’s Mark Radka says that in countries where M&T is an accepted approach to energy management, it is usually offered on a fee-for-service basis by professional firms. “However, in Central and Eastern Europe, a fee-for-service structure for this type of energy management service in an industrial setting presents difficulties because it is unknown.”

The project will build a market for the approach by coupling M&T support with private sector financing for M&T audits and site training in firms adopting an approach often used by Energy Service Companies (ESCOs).“This combination of providing M&T technical services with ESCO-like financing arrangements has not been used before in Central and Eastern Europe,” says Radka.

Commencing in early October and operating for three consecutive years, the project will be implemented by the UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE),working closely with the Czech and Slovak Energy Agencies and Czech and Slovak Ministries of Environment. UNEP’s work will be assisted by BASE (the Basel Agency for Sustainable Energy), a UNEP Collaborating Centre focused on financing energy efficiency and renewable energy projects.

By t he project’s conclusion in 2006,UNEP Energy believes the US$2 million of GEF funds to encourage greater energy efficiency will be matched by US$4 mil- lion of ESCO investment and US$2.5 million of private sector investment in both countries.

Contact: Mark Radka, UNEP Energy, tel:+33 (0) 1 4437 1427;

CD4CDM Starts Second Phase

The Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism Project (CD4CDM, is now entering its second phase with the implementation over the next two and a half years of national work plans formulated in phase one. During the second phase of the UNEP project, funded by the Dutch government and implemented by URC, each region will hold six regional training workshops for the involved countries, including two workshops expanded to include participants from other countries in the region.

The first of these expanded workshops took place in the San Martin Palace in Buenos Aires in September. Fifty participants from all Latin American countries and one hundred participants from Argentina discussed broad perspectives of the CDM, including sustainability, globalisation, technology transfer, key development priorities in Latin America and the progress in the creation of the CDM infrastructure. All presentations are available in Spanish at

Similar seminars will soon be held in the other project regions of Asia, Africa, and North Africa/Middle East (see Upcoming Events for information on the African workshop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia).

Guidance materials for several key issues are also under development. The first publication, Introduction to the CDM ,was published in 2002 and has since been translated into nine different languages. A General Guideline to the CDM is scheduled for release at the COP9 meeting in Milan in December.

Other materials scheduled for release in early 2004 will address:

• Sustainable development impacts;
• Legal and regulatory issues for the CDM;
• Institutional framework for the CDM;
• Financial aspects of the CDM;
• Baseline methodologies;
• Bundling of small-scale projects;

Contact: Myung-Kyoon Lee,URC, tel:+45 4677 5168,

Sustainable Energy for Indochina

Tapping Indochina’s substantial sustainable energy potential through private sector and direct foreign investment is the focus of a new partnership between URC, the Regional Institute of Environmental Technology (RIET) of Singapore, and other European partners. The project, Stimulating EU-Indochina New and Renewable Energy Projects through Private Sector Participation in Economic Cooperation and Foreign Direct Investments ,aims to promote clean, renewable and economical energy power supplies by encouraging the private sector and financial institutions to cooperate in clean energy projects between Europe and Indochina. The project also aims to improve and increase opportunities to transfer European technology and know-how.

Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Vietnam will participate in the project. “Most of these countries are currently facing shortages of electricity supplies, but they are also richly endowed with renewable energy resources,” says URC’s Romeo Pacudan. However, various barriers constrain the development of these resources, and in many countries this development is taking place in new electricity markets opened to private and foreign investors.

Vietnam’s demand for electric power, for example, is expected to continue growing at 15%annually for the next 10 years. The country’s renewable energy potential includes 320 Megawatts (MW) from rice and sugarcane bagasse residues, and 1500-2000 MW from small and micro-hydroelectric power sources. The country has also a good solar resource and good wind speeds in certain coastal and mountainous regions.

Lao PDR has abundant hydropower resources with an estimated potential of over 18,000 MW, of which only 2%has so far been developed. Myanmar still has no centrally generated electrical supply but a hydropower potential estimated to be more than 100,000 MW and a large geothermal potential. In Cambodia, renewable energy resources that can augment grid-based capacity include small-scale hydroelectric resources, solar energy and agro-industrial wastes.

Project activities include:

• Researching market demand, project opportunities and other direct information for Indochina’s sustainable energy resources.
• Establishing a network in Europe and Indochina to identify and attract the most relevant sustainable energy investors from across Europe.
• Profiling European and Indochina participants and compiling this information into a participant’s catalogue.
• Conducting two-day business meetings in Hanoi, Vietnam. These meetings will include a half-day seminar to discuss key information on market opportunities, financing schemes, policy and legal information, and European experience with sustainable energy projects.

Contact: Romeo Pacudan,URC, tel:+45 4677 5170,

B-REED Conducts First Policy Activity

The Brazil Rural Energy Enterprise Development programme (B-REED – is conducting its first policy activity to help Brazilian policy and decision makers implement a new electricity law in ways that enable small rural energy enterprises to coexist with distribution utilities. The new law (Law 10.438) deals with key issues for rural energy enterprises, such as tariffs, subsidies and the universal supply of electricity by distribution concessions. There are currently many open issues in this law that have to be defined by regulation.

These issues are important to the B-REED programme, which seeks to develop small energy enterprises that use clean, efficient and sustainable energy technologies to supply energy to under-served populations in Brazil’s Northeast.

B-REED’s first policy support includes stakeholder consultations, support to energy entrepreneurs on policy issues, and a policy workshop to discuss the implementation proposal. The workshop, held this month in Itajuba, Minas Gerais, included representatives from the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the federal electricity utility Eletrobrás, small-scale electricity producers, renewable energy centres and suppliers, academia and B-REED partners.

URC’s Juan Zak says most participants agreed that small energy enterprises could play an essential role in the sup- ply of electricity to locations out of economic reach by conventional utilities. However, since these utilities now have an obligation to supply all consumers in their concession area, an outsourcing arrangement between utilities and small enterprises needs to be established.

This would also enable remote customers to receive subsidies that are now only available to grid-connected rural users. Small energy enterprises could also supply electricity for some energy services with clean energy until the grid arrives.“ The B-REED approach has an enormous potential within the process of universal access to electricity that has now been started in Brazil,” Zak says.

Contact: Juan Zak,URC, tel:+45 4677 5137,

… and Finally:
Picture This

Joergen Fenhann is URC’s most intrepid photographer whose pictures are often found on these pages .Whether in a crowded Latin American street or wandering an African landscape, the camera is never far from his grasp. “I like to have a memory for myself, but then I want to capture an image that gives a message relevant for sustainable development,” he says, adding, “it’s fun”. E+ thanks Joergen for his numerous (and fun) photo contributions.

Upcoming Events

Nairobi, November 22, 2003

The Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD –, Annual Partner Assembly. The GNESD Secretariat will host the Network’s first Partner Assembly to formally establish GNESD and approve the two-year strategic plan, work programme and budget. In addition, the Working Group on “Energy Access” will report on their activities conducted under the umbrella of the GNESD.

Contact: GNESD Secretariat, tel:+45 4677 5131,

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 20-21&24,2003
African CDM Training Workshop and Climate Change Negotiators Meeting.

The workshop on October 20-21 for African UNFCCC negotiators and CD4CDM project participants will focus on CDM methodological issues. The meeting on October 24 for the African negotiators will be preparatory for UNFCCC COP9 in December.

Contact: Njeri Wamukonya,URC, tel:+45 4677 5169,

E+ provides information on the activities at URC and UNEP. The views expressed here do not necessarily represent those of UNEP, Risø National Laboratory or Danida. Back issues can be found at To receive an electronic or printed copy of E+, please register on our website or contact Maria Andreasen ( at the URC number below. For all other information or comment, please contact the editor, Anne Marie J. Jensen (

UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC), Risø National Laboratory, PO Box 49,DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark, Tel: +45 4632 2288, Fax: +45 4632 1999

UNEP Energy Programme, Division of Industry, Technology and Economics, Tour Mirabeau 39-43 Quai Andre Citroen,75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, Tel: +33 1 4437 1474, Fax: +33 1 4437 1429

E+ is printed on 100%recycled,chlorine-free paper.
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UCCEE Changes Name

UNEP Executive Director, Klaus Töpfer, took the opportunity during his keynote address at a recent Risoe-hosted energy conference (see article next page) to announce a change of name for UCCEE. The former UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment will now be known as the UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, or simply as the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC).

Head of Centre, John Christensen, says it was difficult to continue as ‘the’ collaborating centre because UNEP has established a number of partnerships with other centres over the last few years that also have a collaborating centre status. BASE and NREL, for example are collaborating centres in the energy area, and a collaborating centre on water issues was started also in Denmark 2 years ago. So the underlying idea is to clearly mark Risoe’s unique and clear links with UNEP, including the hosting of the GNESD Secretariat, which will also be managed by Christensen.

Sustainable Mobility
Moving in the Right Direction

Transportation and mobility issues are some of the most complex and daunting challenges to sustainable development. As one of the fastest growing sectors today, transport energy demand is steadily increasing in developing countries, a trend that is likely to continue. The use of energy – particularly fossil fuels – is expected to double by 2020, with the transport sector’s share expected to increase from 28% in 1997 to 31% in 2020 (World Energy Outlook, 2000).

Increasing income levels in many of the developing countries are leading to changing lifestyles and new patterns of mobility, particularly the use of personal motorised transport. “This development has serious impacts on public health and on local and global environments, which can counteract efforts to stabilise GHG concentrations,” says UNEP Risoe Centre’s Jorge Rogat. Without sustainable mobility options, he adds, this current development and its consequences are likely to continue.

Rogat is in charge of developing a long-term strategy to deal with – and avoid - the negative effects of increased transportation in developing countries, including both local and global environmental impacts. Currently the Centre is developing activities linked to other Centre projects in three main areas:

• Economic Instruments
• Sustainable Transport Systems
• Information Exchange on the Health and Economic Impacts of Air Pollution

In the area of economic instruments, the UNEP Risoe Centre project, Research on Fuel Pricing Policies in the Latin American (LAC) region, analyses current pricing policies in eleven countries of the region, and the economic and environmental implications they may have. The project is conducted in collaboration with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) with the objective to provide policy guidance on fuel pricing. As part of the research project, a regional consultation meeting was held at ECLAC’s head quarters in December 2002 in Santiago, Chile. Representatives of a number of governments, decision makers and other stakeholders from the Latin American region participated in the event. The work will be published in July-August 2003.

In the Asia-Pacific region, the Centre has been conducting research with the Japanese Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to develop integrated policy instruments for environmentally sustainable urban transport systems in Asian and Pacific cities. In addition to developing strategic options for sustainable urban transport, the project is also creating a prototype ”Good Practices Inventory” that includes an “Innovative Instruments” directory. The work will be completed and published by September 2003.

Centre research is also addressing barriers to non-motorised transport (NMT) in Africa. “Too often, legislation, regulations and policies of all levels of government inhibit the growth of non-motorised transportation such as walking and cycling, which are primary means of transportation for people in many developing countries,” says Rogat. As part of the research, the Centre is undertaking two activities: 1) evaluating techniques for measuring NMT activity and demand, evaluating NMT conditions, and incorporating non-motorised travel into transport planning; and 2) examining barriers to NMT and reviewing case studies of successful NMT integration transport policy.

As part of efforts to increase global awareness and research collaboration regarding the environmental impacts of air pollution, including pollution from the transport sector, the UNEP Risoe Centre has led the development of the AirImpacts website ( The project was launched in April 2002 and includes research from a number of collaborating organizations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the World Bank, OECD, and universities in Asia, Latin America and the USA.

In September, UNEP and the UNEP Risoe Centre will also sponsor an international workshop on socio-economic factors and air pollution health effects. The workshop will be part of the 15th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. (See “Upcoming Events”).

Contact: Jorge Rogat, URC, ph: +45 4677 5133,

Risoe Conference Explores Post-Kyoto Energy

More than 120 researchers and policymakers attended an international conference at Denmark’s Risoe National Laboratory in May to explore energy technologies to meet post-Kyoto targets. Co-sponsored by Risoe and UNEP with organizational assistance by the Centre, the conference presented new developments and trends in energy technologies that may become main contributors to overall energy supply in the next 15 to 20 years, and the critical actions required now to encourage those technologies.

Conference topics included:
• Future requirements derived from global scenarios
• Advances in traditional supply technologies
• Advances in present renewable technologies, wind, solar, biomass
• Emerging futuristic renewable technologies
• Integrating new technologies into the energy systems
• Economic and policy issues.

In his keynote address, Executive Director of UNEP, Klaus Töpfer, said that cleaner and more efficient energy technologies are “essential for sustainable development and critical for meeting the Kyoto targets”. With Kyoto ratification due later this year, Töpfer emphasized that the focus of policymakers in developing countries will be to provide access to reliable and affordable energy services for expanding populations and industries, ensuring economic growth that leads to improved living standards.

Töpfer noted a number of initiative’s under UNEP’s Energy Programme designed to provide energy services to the world’s poor and which also support the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Millennium Development Goals - both of which highlight the need for improved access to reliable and affordable energy services for sustainable development.

“The scale of bringing clean energy to developing countries is huge. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity and only 15 percent of large cities in developing countries have acceptable air quality, largely due to the way energy is used in homes and industries and for transport,” says Töpfer. Although renewable energy technologies hold great potential, Töpfer said that policymakers “must be pragmatic about their contribution in the medium term” as fossil fuels would be the primary energy option for at least the next couple of decades. The challenge, he added, is how to use fossil fuels more efficiently and how to reduce their negative environmental effects.

The transition to cleaner and more advanced fossil fuel technologies is also essential in supporting sustainable development. “Many developing countries have large reserves of fossil fuels, and it is natural to expect that they will use these to meet rising demands for energy services,” he says.

Also discussed was the Clean Development Mechanism as a major incentive for stimulating technology transfer, where developing countries can use “technology leapfrogging” to advance their sustainable development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Upcoming 2003 UNEP-Risoe Events

24-26 September, Perth, Australia
Traversing Boundaries,15th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology.

The conference will explore the trend towards transdisciplinary approaches to environmental epidemiological research. As part of the event, UNEP and the UNEP Risoe are sponsoring an international workshop on socio-economic factors and air pollution health effects. The workshop will promote discussion of public policy motivations, current research results, data gaps and future research directions for studying the interaction of socioeconomic conditions and air pollution as determinants of population health. For more information go to

Contact: Jorge Rogat, UNEP Risoe Centre, ph: +45 4677 5133,

New REED Project for China

With backing from the United Nations Foundation, UNEP will soon launch another Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED) initiative. The China Rural Energy Enterprise Development Project (CREED) will focus on the northwestern part of China’s Yunnan province and surrounding areas that are globally recognised for their rich biodiversity. After an implementing partner meeting in early June in Paris, the project will be launched in the later northern hemisphere summer.

CREED is particularly focused on preserving the region’s rich biodiversity. UNEP’s CREED representative Aki Maruyama says that while biodiversity loss in the area is heavily related to past logging practices, the unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood to meet basic cooking and heating needs is exacerbating the problem; affecting environmental services such as watershed protection and increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

The current local practice of burning large quantities of wood in open, indoor fires also has large, direct, and adverse health consequences for rural people. CREED’s aim is thus to create a sustainable energy development path for these people while improving rural health and alleviating deforestation and the resulting loss of biodiversity.

CREED activities will be delivered through a combination of local professionals and working relationships with research entities, NGOs and others. The main CREED project partners, TNC, E+Co and UNEP, will work with a number of local and national organisations, including clean energy enterprises, consumer credit agencies, micro enterprise and income generation intermediary organisations, financial institutions, and government entities. Maruyama says this work can help to influence broader shifts regarding energy and development that are underway in China and redirect existing sources of finance and support to achieve sustainable energy goals.

Contact: Aki Maruyama, UNEP, ph: +33 1 4437 1627,

Mediterranean Renewables Project Advances

The UNEP project to promote new finance options for renewable energy in the Mediterranean region continues to advance with preliminary renewable energy technology and policy assessment reports prepared for Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt.

Promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Mediterranean Region is being co-ordinated with the International Energy Agency, the Observatoire Méditerranéen de l’Energie (OME) and the Mediterranean Association of the National Agencies for Energy Conservation (MEDENER) and backed by the Italian Ministry of Environment and Territory.

Financial consultants Econergy International have won the tender to prepare an overview of the renewable energy finance sector for the Mediterranean region and to prepare a discussion paper on potential UNEP-sponsored financial mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. UNEP’s Eric Usher says those mechanisms could include both “patient capital” funds utilizing a mix of public and private funds which allows for long finance periods and lower rates of return, and Certified Emission Reductions units generated by CDM projects and tradable renewable energy certificates.

The Project will also focus on strengthening policy frameworks and building private sector project development capabilities. A stakeholder consultation process will be carried out in July 2003 for the three project countries and a preliminary brief, detailing the proposed financing support mechanisms, will be prepared for September. Usher says the first mechanism(s) could be in place by fall 2003.

Contact: Eric Usher, UNEP, Ph: +33 1 4437 7614,


Managing Technological Change, a summary of an IPCC document on Technology Transfer, is now available in five other languages: Chinese, Russian, French, Spanish, and Arabic. Copies are available from UNEP Energy (see contact details in box)

Electricity Reform: Social and Environmental Challenge, Njeri Wamukonya, UNEP-Risoe Centre, June 2003. The book documents the processes and social/environmental implications of power reform across the globe, including employment, access to electricity, quality of service delivery, general welfare and environmental impacts. Available from the UNEP-Risoe Centre (see contact details in box)

New Staff at URC

Miriam Hinostroza is a new Centre researcher working on the CDM capacity building in Latin America and the process of CDM implementation. Miriam holds a PhD in Energy Planning from the University of Campinas in Brazil and was a post doctoral researcher at the Institute of Energy and Electrotechnics of the University of São Paulo analysing the CDM implementation process in Brazil’s energy sector. She has also been involved in several projects focused on energy economics and the environment, particularly relationships between climate change mitigation options and energy policy.

Contact: Miriam Hinostroza, Ph: +45 4677 5180,

Anne Marie J. Jensen is for 1 year substituting the URC administrator/editor of E+ Stine Skipper who is on maternity leave. Anne Marie holds a Cand.merc. degree from the Aarhus School of Business. Anne Marie spent several years in the southern part of Africa where she worked as Administrative and Financial Adviser for Danida Projects and Sector Programme Support in Tanzania, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

Contact: Anne Marie J. Jensen, Ph: +45 4677 5175,

New Staff at DTIE, Paris

Aki Maruyama joined UNEP in May 2002 to work with the REED programme in China as well as some of the projects and new initiatives related to CDM and sustainable energy financing. Before joining UNEP, Aki worked at the Institute for Global Environment Strategies (IGES) based in Japan where she researched climate change financial mechanisms and international cooperation. She also worked as a short-term consultant to the World Bank and Deutsche Bank and holds MSc in Environmental management from University of Oxford.

Contact: Aki Maruyama, UNEP, Ph: +33 1 4437 1627,

E+ provides information on the activities at URC and UNEP. The views expressed here do not necessarily represent those of UNEP, Risø National Laboratory or Danida. Back issues can be found at To receive an electronic or printed copy of E+, please register on our website or contact Maria Andreasen ( at the URC number below. For all other information or comment, please contact the editor, Anne Marie J. Jensen

UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC), Risø National Laboratory, PO Box 49, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark, Tel: +45 4632 2288, Fax; +45 4632 1999

UNEP Energy Programme, Division of Industry, Technology and Economics, Tour Mirabeau 39-43 Quai Andre Citroen, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, Tel: +33 1 4437 1474, Fax: +33 1 4437 1429

E+ is printed on 100% recycled, chlorine-free paper.
Layout by Finn Hagen Madsen (