Transport and the Global Environment:
Accounting for GHG Reductions in Policy Analysis

ISBN: 92-807-2097-X

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Preface

1. Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Structure

2. Analytical framework
2.1 Decision making framework
2.2 General structure of the methodological framework
2.3 GHG reduction inclusive policy options
2.4 Decision criteria for initiation of transport projects
2.5 Baseline cases and GHG reduction inclusive policy cases
2.6 Relationship to FCCC/GEF incremental costs concepts and additionality issues of the CDM
2.7 Methodologies for inclusion of GHG reduction in project analysis

3. Conceptual framework
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Cost Concepts in Transport Policy Economic Analysis
3.3 Decision-making framework
3.4 Summary

4. Policy perspectives on GHG reduction objectives in the transportation sector
4.1 Introduction
4.2 GHG Emission Reduction Policies in the Transportation Sector
4.3 Implementation Issues in GHG Emission Reduction Transport Policy
4.4 Summary and conclusions

5. Case studies
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Urban Air Pollution Control Programme: The Case of Delhi, India
5.3 Highway Project in China
5.4 Road Pavement in Chile: CHILPAVE
5.5 Introducing Alternative Fuel Buses in Mauritius
5.6 Vehicle Maintenance Programme in Pakistan
5.7 Summary

6. Environmental Impacts of Transport
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Air pollution from transport
6.3 Other Transportation System Impacts
6.4 Sustainability Issues
6.5 Summary

7. Technological and planning options
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Alternative Fuel Options for Reducing GHG Emissions
7.3 Technology Options for Improving Vehicle Energy Efficiency
7.4 Approaches to Transportation System Management
7.5 Data
7.6 Summary and Conclusions

8. Policy Instruments and Regulatory Options
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Characterisation of Economic Instruments and Regulatory Options
8.3 Main categories of instruments
8.4 Policy Instrument Choice and Design
8.5 Political Complexities
8.6 Issues relating to Control Costs and Benefits
8.7 Applying Policy Instruments to Case Examples
8.8 Conclusions

9. Global support mechanisms for GHG reduction
    integrated policies in the transportation sector

9.1 Introduction to Global support mechanisms
9.2 The Kyoto Protocol
9.3 Financial mechanisms
9.4 The Global Environment Facility
9.5 Conclusions

10. Transport Sector GHG Mitigation: Public-Private Collaboration
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Characterising the Global Automotive Sector
10.3 Funding Organisation Collaboration with the Private Sector: Rationale and Potential Operational Mechanisms
10.4 International Funding Organisations as Finance Source/Facilitators to the Private Sector
10.5 Private Sector Involvement in Public Policy
10.6 Concluding Comments

11. Private Sector Collaboration: Case Studies
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Carbon dioxide implications of the California Zero-Emission vehicle programme
11.3 European Commission Auto-Oil programme Case Study

References
Annex I: Glossary
Annex II: Illustration of total annual cost and cost-effectiveness calculations