Implementation strategy to reduce environmental impact

of energy related activities in Zimbabwe

Working Paper No. 5

UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment

Risų National Laboratory, Denmark

January 1997



Southern Centre for Energy and Environment

Zimbabwe

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

India

UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment

Denmark

Southern Centre for Energy and Environment

31 Frank Johnson Ave., Eastlea

P.O. Box CY 1074, Causeway

Harare

Zimbabwe

phone/fax: +263 4 737351/739341



National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

Nehru Marg

Nagpur-440 020

India

phone: +91 0712 226071 to 226075

fax: +91 0712 226252



UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment

Risų National Laboratory

P.O. Box 49

DK-4000 Roskilde

Denmark

phone: +45 46 32 22 88

fax: +45 46 32 19 99

Foreword



Contents

1 Introduction

2 Background on the energy sector in Zimbabwe

3 Environmental impacts of energy related activities

4 Review of studies on energy efficiency in Zimbabwe

5 Barriers to implementation of negative cost options in Zimbabwe

6 Proposed implementation strategies

7 Role of multi-lateral and bi-lateral institutions/agencies in technology transfer and diffusion 63

8 Action plan

Annex I: Evaluation of select combustion technologies

Annex II: NOx emissions from different combustion technologies

Annex III: Air pollutants from various electricity-generating technologies

Annex IV: Comparison of baghouse filters and electrostatic precipitators for control of suspended particulate matter emission from coal combustion

Annex V: Commercially available processes for the chemical cleaning of coal to remove sulphur before combustion

Annex VI: NOx control technologies

1 Introduction

1.1 Country background

Zimbabwe's economy has sizeable commercial agriculture, manufacturing and mining activities. Energy consumption is relatively high by regional standards. The country has substantial coal reserves. All petroleum products are imported. Wood fuels are widely used by the rural households and by low income urban households as the main source of household energy.

In view of a current economic reform programme which has opened the local market to foreign finished products and looks to an export led economic expansion strategy, the manufacturing sector in Zimbabwe has to become internationally competitive if it is to hold its share of the domestic market and to gain a position on the international market. This requires stringent management of production costs and product quality assurance. Alongside these pressures exist pressures of rational energy use and sound environmental management. A significant amount of cost management measures relate to energy efficiency which has direct benefits to cost savings. Sound environmental management, however, which has become an obvious expectation of the market can if managed proactively yield optimum resource utilization at the shop floor resulting in cost savings. But if done reactively, environmental management interventions normally show up as costs from which the company sees no gains.

In the Zimbabwean situation energy efficiency management is low and proactive environmental management is limited as companies are either not carrying out any rational energy use and environmental management practices or are focusing on "step one" activities such as energy and environment audits as opposed to the more sophisticated approaches involving resource use optimization.

Energy and environmental management issues also show up on the supply side of the equation both as costs to the economy and as negative effects on the environment. In the past more than 12% of GDP was spent on expansion of power sector. As Zimbabwe needs energy to raise productivity and improve the living standards, energy demand would increase in future thereby entailing greater investment costs to the economy and perhaps expanded environmental degradation from energy supply and utilization activities. Historically the country's energy needs have been met by expanding the supply base with little attention being paid to the efficiency of energy use. This approach is now, however, raising serious financial, institutional, and environmental problems. The magnitude of these problems underlines the need for devising strategies for improving the efficiency with which energy is currently produced and used and the approaches adopted for sound management of environmental impacts of the energy sector.

During this and other studies on related issues, it became evident that indeed there is no fundamental difference of opinion and purpose among the various stakeholders on matters of energy efficiency and environmental management. Rather, Zimbabwe is in a unique situation where industry, government and NGOs agree on the objective of rational energy use and sound environmental management and together have made various efforts to device workable approaches to enhance this objective. Industry, working mostly through the Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries' specialised committees on energy and environment, holds consultations with Government and research institutions toward this goal. The Department of Energy and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism's Environmental Planning and Monitoring Unit have carried out a number of activities either through studies or through legislative reform in light of pressure from the national consensus on matters of energy and environment.

Despite these efforts, very little actual progress has been made in improving industrial energy efficiency and in adopting rational environmental practices. At first sight, it might appear that there is lack of intent but the flurry of activities in this area do not confirm that conclusion. Rather, as the study has found out, there are some genuine barriers to these efforts.

The study documented below focused on these barriers and on suggesting approaches to their removal. As background and to build a context to its analysis, the study provides a rather extensive review of the energy sector but focuses mainly on coal and electricity and the environmental impacts of their supply and utilization.



1.2 Project objectives

Energy-Environmental linkages have assumed greater importance in the recent past as the impact of green-house gases (mainly CO2) on climate change was realized. However, in Zimbabwe, pollution has remained at a low level. Pollution assessments have been carried out under the Ministry of Health through the Air Pollution Control Unit and by the Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare who assess emissions of dust from coal as well as work place exposure to hazardous chemicals and emissions.

In 1992 UNEP-Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UNEP-CCEE), Denmark and Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe, prepared a country report for Zimbabwe on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Abatement Costing. Abatement technologies for both supply side and demand side were identified in the study to reduce GHG emissions.

UNEP-CCEE's work on the Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies confirmed that for most developing countries, including Zimbabwe, scheduling GHG abatement options is likely to follow regular national development activities agenda and much less an agenda for mitigating global environmental issues. This national agenda would stress mitigation of local pollution and environmental degradation if environmental issues are at all included in the national development programme. This may mean that in the energy sector GHG emissions abatement may be achieved but only as a bonus on activities intended to mitigate local environmental problems.

As environmental issues related to energy sector are very extensive, the present study endeavours to address environmental impacts of the entire energy cycle focusing on coal use in industry and power generation. Zimbabwe has proven coal reserves of more than 700 million tonnes, and the potential of geological coal resources is estimated beyond 30 billion tonnes. The conventional applications of coal include electricity generation, steam traction in railway transport, industrial boilers, tobacco curing, and coking. As coal is the major source of energy for Zimbabwe, present study aims at identification of environmental impacts of the entire coal cycle from mining to end-users of electrical energy.

In view of above and the interest expressed by the Ministry of Transport and Energy in taking up practical measures to pursue environmentally sound energy development strategies, the present project endeavours to examine the issues which may have a bearing on a strategy to implement sound environmental management in the energy sector.

In view of the fact that energy, like capital and labour, is a key input to production processes, the objective of the strategy developed in this report is not to pursue energy efficiency as an end in itself, but as a means to an end where the end includes minimizing total costs of production as general focus.

The scope of the study, accordingly, includes:

Delineation of present sources of energy, projection of future energy demand and collection of information on energy sector development plans.

Delineation of broad environmental impacts due to energy related activities.

Detailing environmental impact due to coal mining and coal based thermal power generation.

Development of emission scenarios for energy sector development plans.

Delineation of technological options to reduce pollution due to coal mining and thermal power generation.

Delineation of barriers to implementation of environmentally sound energy technology.

Delineation of institutional and financial mechanism to implement the emissions reduction measures.

Delineation of the different roles of multi-lateral and bi-lateral institutions and agencies in the transfer and diffusion of sound energy supply and end-use technology.

Formulation of action plans for implementing strategies for minimizing negative environmental impacts of energy related activities



1.3 Institutional arrangements for the study

The study has been jointly carried out by UNEP-CCEE, Denmark, Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), India. UNEP-CCEE and NEERI experts visited Zimbabwe in January and May 1994, interacted with the government officers, industries and financial institutions to collect necessary data. This study report has been jointly prepared by the participating institutions.



1.4 Limitations of present study

The major limitation of the study is that it was carried out in a situation where the present status of energy related environmental pollution is unspecified. Information on air pollution, water pollution and land degradation due to energy related activities has not been systematically documented. For this reason, it was not possible to assess impacts of pollution prevention or control strategies in terms of improvements in local environmental quality in quantitative terms due to the lack of a bench mark upon which to judge such improvement.



2 Background on the energy sector in Zimbabwe

2.1 Sources of energy

Zimbabwe relies mainly on coal for thermal energy in industry and power generation. This fuel provides the bulk of industrial energy and produces about 70% of total national electrical energy. Electricity is also produced from hydro resources of the Zambezi. Biomass (mainly fuel wood) is the main source of energy for rural household who represent about 77% of total households in the country. The energy balance for Zimbabwe for 1991 which is shown in Table 2.1 shows a detailed breakdown of source and applications of energy among the various economic sectors of the economy. The figures indicate the dominance of wood in the national energy base. Wood has not been a commercial fuel in the past but is becoming more so particularly in urban areas. All petroleum products used in the country are imported.

Sources and applications of each of these fuels are discussed in greater detail below.

2.1.1 Hydroelectricity

The major source of hydropower for Zimbabwe is Zambezi river which has a total potential of 7200 MW of which 4200 MW can be developed by Zimbabwe jointly with Zambia. The two countries share a hydroelectric power station on the Kariba dam which was built on the Zambezi river in 1955-1960. The present total capacity is 1266 MW which was developed as follows:

4 x 150 MW gen sets that were installed on the Zambian side and commissioned in 1962. These sets which are known as the North Bank Power Station are shared equally between Zambia and Zimbabwe giving each country a 300 MW share of the station.

6 x 110 MW gen sets which were installed on the southern bank (the Zimbabwe side) of the river in 1976-77 and are known as Kariba South Bank Power Station. This later installation brought the Kariba dam's hydro-electric power capacity to 1266 MW and under the equal share agreement, Zimbabwe owns 633 MW of this capacity.

The Kariba Power Station has recently been affected by drought and the flows into the lake have been progressively low since the early eighties, resulting in a critical fall in levels which almost rendered the station in-operable in 1992/93. In August 1993, the lake level was about one meter above the power station intake level and projections were putting the water to last till November 1993. The drought resulted in change of preference towards thermal plants which are less affected by poor rains. The Zambezi offers additional hydroelectric resources at Batoka gorge, Devil's gorge, Mupata gorge and at Cahora Bassa in Mozambique. The potential hydroelectric resources are shown in Table 2.2.

Sites for mini hydro plants in Zimbabwe have been assessed but the total potential has not been stated. Table 2.3 shows some of the potential sites and their capacity based on historical performance of their hydrology.

Table 2.2. Potential hydroelectric resources on River Zambezi

Site Capacity, MW
Batoka Gorge

Devil's Gorge

Mupata Gorge

Cahora Bassa

1600

1240

1000

2000

Total 5740





Source: ZESA



Table 2.3. Potential mini-hydro sites in Zimbabwe

Site Capacity, MW
Bangala

Kyle

Siya

Odzani

Smallbridge

Manyuchi II

Ruti

Palawan

Mwenge II

Jumbo

800

1500

450

60

70

170

200

170

100

30

Total 3550





Source: DOE study on hydroelectric potential of irrigation dams.



2.1.2 Coal

Zimbabwe has a total of 10.6 billion tonnes of coal in situ in 21 deposits. Coal deposits occur in the younger rocks at the northern and southern edges of the basement shield. Proven reserves can last for 107 years and total reserves over 2000 years at present production rate of 4.7 million tonnes per year (TPY). A breakdown of coal reserves in the country is shown in Table 2.4.



Table 2.4. Coal reserves in Zimbabwe

Proven reserves

Estimated reserves

Total reserves including probable

0.502 bn tonnes

2.000 bn tonnes

10.600 bn tonne





Source: DOE/ESMAP

The country has two coal mines. One is the Wankie Colliery with production capacity of 6 million tonnes per year. Of the present output of 4.5 million tonnes per year, 2 million tonnes are processed and sold as industrial washed or dry coal and 2.5 million tonnes are used as run-of-mine steam coal at the Hwange power plant. The second mine is the Sengwa Coal Mine with production capacity of 200,000 TPY which was shut down after two years of operation due to viability problems. The mine produced low-sulfur, low-phosphate metallurgical coal for the smelting industry, to displace import of high quality coal from South Africa. Wankie coal has 2.5% sulphur compared to Sengwa coal with 0.5% sulphur. Both types of coal have an average calorific value of about 27 MJ/kg.

Wankie colliery has both surface and underground works. Proven reserves at Wankie are 302 mn M.T. (185 mn M.T. of steam coal and 117 mn M.T. of coking coal). Out of these 240 mn M.T. are open-castable. The surface mine produces a low quality high ash content (25% ash) coal from the top of the seam. This coal is termed the HPS (Hwange Power Station) coal and is used entirely for the Hwange Power Station. Coal with an ash content of 35% to 40% is rejected as waste. The lower part of the seam produces higher quality steam coal, less than 16% ash, which is supplied to industry and agriculture. The bottom of the seam produces coking coal which is used for supplying to the coke ovens at the colliery and at ZISCO, a steel smelter. Underground coal is produced for blending with the coking coal in the processing plant. Underground coal has a sulfur content of about 3% but has a low phosphorous content which makes it suitable for the ferrochrome industry. The coal has a heat value of about 28 MJ per kg. The underground mine produces 15% of the total colliery output and it is planned to increase output by mechanizing. Proven coal reserves at Sengwa are 200 mn M.T. which is totally open-castable.

2.1.3 Thermal power stations

Coal-based thermal power generation assumed an important role in energy supply scenario of Zimbabwe since 1984 when Hwange Power Station was built at the Wankie coal mine. At present, Zimbabwe has an installed coal based thermal capacity of 1295 MW with a total annual coal intake of 2,856,673 tonnes a year in 1990-91. The role of coal in power generation is highlighted in Table 2.5. The details of present installed capacity and power station performance are presented in Table 2.5 and 2.6.



Table 2.5. Role of coal in power generation

Fuel/source Power generation, MWh
1988 1989 1990 1991
Coal

Hydro

Imports

ZESA purchases from Pvt. generators

5391

2666

899

-

5374

3196

875

-

4992

4396

355

-

5771

3153

1165

-





Source: ZESA Annual reports

Table 2.6. Power station technical data

Name of station Construction year No. of units Size (MW) Installed capacity Generating voltage (kV)
Hwange 1 1983 4 120 480 10.5
Hwange 2 1985 2 220 440 17.0
Munyati 1947 2

5

10

20

20

100

11.0

11.0

Harare 2 1946 2

2

2

7.5

10.0

20.0

15

20

40

11.0

11.0

11.0

Harare 3 1957 2 30 60 11.0
Bulawayo 1948 2

3

15

30

30

90

11.0

11.0

Total 1295 11.0





Source: ZESA Annual report 1993



The Kariba South units are being uprated to about 125 MW, and a similar exercise is in progress at Munyati and Harare.



Table 2.7. Electrical energy production and station performance for 1993

Station Electricity Sentout Avail.

%

Load factor

%

Calorific value

MJ/Kg

Sentout Eff.

%

Coal Req. Kg/kWh
Hwange 1

Hwange 2

82.57

83.33

73.31

53.48

Total 4755.1 82.93 63.83 25.37 28.09 0.49
Munyati

Harare

Bulawayo

Kariba

259.8

228.9

162.1

2061.9

43.45

45

45.76

*****

26.35

21.31

16.99

*****

30.778

28.5

29.572

****

17.08

20.15

18.11

*****

0.672

0.625

0.685

****





Source: ZESA Annual report 1993



2.1.4 Fuel wood

Wood is the single largest source of energy in Zimbabwe, supplying about 48% of total energy consumed in the country. More than 6 million tonnes of wood are consumed annually supplying mainly rural and urban low income households. This is equivalent to clear felling of 100,000 ha; or a sustainable yield from two million hectares of reasonable quality woodland. This is also equivalent to a yield from more than 10 million hectares of sparse cover on rough grazing land. Demand for fuel wood exceeds supply in four of the eight provinces (Manicaland, Mashonaland East, Masvingo and Midlands). Early in the next century, only Mashonaland West and Matabeleland South, provinces with the lowest population densities, are likely to retain a wood surplus.



Table 2.8. National fuelwood supply and demand (million tonnes)

1992 1997 2002
Demand

Yields

Stock depletion

Shortfall

10.62

5.63

3.77

1.22

12.14

4.92

1.57

5.65

14.03

4.67

3.01

6.35

Total stocks 633.32 603.19 605.87





Source: The Southern African environment, profiles of the SADC countries, 1993



2.1.5 Liquid fuels

Zimbabwe does not have known oil reserves. There has been some exploratory work in the Zambezi valley but no deposits have been identified yet. The transport sector relies on imported liquid fuels which are brought in by pipeline from Beira in Mozambique to Mutare and are distributed by road and rail. A project is underway to extend the pipeline to Harare.

The fuel is used in the transport sector only. There is no extensive use of fuel oils in industry. Kerosene is used to a limited extent and some boilers exist that use diesel but the fuel use is insignificant and can be ignored. Petrol is mixed with ethanol to form a blend that is used for petrol engines. The ethanol production is based on sugar production.

2.1.6 Renewable energy sources

Biogas

Biogas offers an option for supply of household and agro-industrial energy in Zimbabwe. More than 200 digesters have been installed in Zimbabwe which range in capacity from 3 cubic meters to 16 cubic meters. The basic feedstock is cow dung or pig manure. Two types of biogas digesters have been introduced in the country which has no tradition with this type of technology. These are the Indian and Chinese types.

Initial dissemination constraints were encountered due to lack of a local source of biogas lamps. A local source has now been developed and with all other materials for the technology being locally available, the diffusion of this technology should be much faster than hitherto experienced.

Solar and wind energy

Zimbabwe experiences an insolation of 2000 kW/m2 per year. Insolation is uniform across the country and across the seasons.

Wind speeds in Zimbabwe are relatively low at only 3.2 m/sec. Information recorded by the meteorological office shows that the highest wind speeds are experienced at Bulawayo (4.25 m/s), Chipinge (3.8 m/s) and Gweru (3.8 m/s). These speeds are irregular both by season and by area and vary widely diurnally. This wind regime rules out utilization of wind energy for power generation. This resource is however sufficient to enable utilization of wind mills for water pumping.

At present there are a few companies supplying wind mills for power generation.

2.1.7 Electricity imports and other sources

Other energy resources in Zimbabwe include electricity imports from Zambia (up to 300 MW) which depend on the flows on the Zambezi and imports of about 120 MW from Zaire. Electricity imports are limited by load growth in the exporting country. Imports from Zambia are expected to stop by 2000. The electricity system is also interconnected with South Africa at Beitbridge and with Botswana at Francistown. Imports from South Africa offer a more expensive option and would only serve as emergency support. Even then, a 500 MW interconnection with South Africa will be completed by the end of the year. System interconnection, however, serves to improve reliability as outages in one system can be compensated by the other.

At the Triangle sugar mill, bagasse is burnt to produce electricity. The plant can produce up to 15 MW during the harvesting season and 5 MW out of season. Electricity is used on the plant and is also sold to ZESA consumers in the area when there is a surplus. There is a recent power purchase agreement between ZESA and an independent producer in the Chimanimani area. The electricity will be produced by a 700 kW mini-hydro plant and will be sold entirely to the utility. This agreement has served to indicate the willingness of the utility to purchase private power, an option which has been missing in the energy sector in Zimbabwe. The tariff agreement provides for a guaranteed price of 80% of the ZESA tariff which assists in project planning for new producers.



2.2 Present energy consumption pattern

Commercial energy demand in Zimbabwe is for manufacturing industry, mining, agriculture, transport, commerce and households. Industry uses most of the coal based energy for steam raising and furnaces and as electricity from the coal fired power stations. The final energy consumption is shown in Table 2.9.

Table 2.9. Energy consumption by fuels (TJ)

1987 1988 1989 1990 % 1990
Coal

Ethanol

Jet A1

Gasoline

Diesel

AvGas

Wood

103487

855

2371

7985

18410

120

103457

139660

868

2586

8316

18864

131

106560

131791

600

3095

9562

20683

119

109757

137189

840

3752

10132

23071

145

113050

47.6

0.3

1.3

3.5

8.0

0.1

39.2





Source: DOE energy data base



2.2.1 Coal

Thermal power generation is the prominent user of coal seconded by the manufacturing sector. Coal is also used in agriculture for tobacco curing. Most of the industrial energy is supplied from coal. Coal is used for steam raising and smelting in furnaces. There is a coking plant at the colliery in Hwange and at the Zisco Steel plant in Redcliff. A total of about 534,000 tonnes of coke is consumed in industry every year.



Table 2.10. Coal consumption by sector for 1990 (tonnes)

End-use Sector Consumption Tonnes % share
Iron and steel

Railway traction

Power generation

Mining

Cement production

Brick making

Sugar refineries

Agriculture

Other industry

Exports

660082

189799

2843000

87161

107521

56561

47873*

394575

312657**

65523

13.9

4.0

59.7

1.8

2.3

1.2

1.0

8.3

6.6

4.4

Total 4574953



* Lowveld sugar industry only

** Inclusive of other sugar refineries

Source: WCC Annual report



2.2.2 Liquid fuels

Liquid petroleum fuels are imported as refined products. There is no refinery in Zimbabwe as the only refinery build before independence was closed on commissioning due to UN imposed sanctions in 1965. The fuel is transported by pipeline to Mutare from where it is transported by road and rail to major distribution centres. Transportation by road is very expensive and to reduce this cost, a pipeline is being built from Mutare to Harare.

The main categories of liquid fuels that are imported are diesel, gasoline, kerosene and aviation fuels. Almost all liquid fuels are used in the transport sector except for very small quantities which are used in industry for oil fired boilers and boiler starting and flame stabilization at Hwange power station. The power station consumes about 15 million litres of diesel per year. The low income household sector also uses kerosene for cooking and lighting.

In the transport sector the large vehicles for road freight and public transport are entirely diesel powered. The government has therefore maintained a differential price between diesel and petrol as a way of protecting agriculture and commerce. Gasoline is used mainly for light motor vehicles and is blended with locally produced ethanol at 13% ethanol to 87% gasoline.

Aviation fuels are supplied in two main groups mainly Jet A1 and Aviation gas (Avgas). Jet A1 is a light fuel for jet engines and avgas is used for mainly small piston aircraft engines. The table below gives the figures of liquid fuels imported in 1991.



Table 2.11. Liquid fuel consumption 1991

Fuel Consumption in

'000 cum

Ethanol

Diesel

Petrol

Jet A1

Kerosine

AvGas

LPG

Fuel oil

17

638

328

100

68

5

12

1





Source: DOE data base



2.2.3 Electrical energy

Analysis of electricity consumption in various sectors is presented in Tables 2.12 and 2.13. It could be seen that even though industrial energy consumption has reduced by 8.39% in the period 1990-93, still it consumes 40% of total electricity produced. Another interesting feature to be noted is that demand from the commercial sector and lighting has been increasing over the years. These two sectors hold potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures.

While total domestic demand has also increased substantially, it is not clear from available data whether the increase is due to rural electrification or due to increased use of electrical appliances in presently electrified households. However it is noteworthy that in the past three years ZESA has been increasing the rate of new household connections in the urban areas.

Table 2.12. Electricity sales by consumer classification

Class of consumer Energy sales (GWh)
1990 1991 1992 1993
Mining 1473896 1518450 1549657 1306235
Industrial 4278016 4052714 809793 593059
Farming 770639 834050 809793 593059
Commercial & lighting 900112 1043486 1141369 1035716
Domestic metered 1140226 1273479
Domestic load limited 460358 443167
Total domestic 1449182 1542937 1600584 1716646
National sales 8871845 8991637 9247947
Total exports 18751
Grand total 9266698





Source: ZESA Annual report 1993



Table 2.13. Electricity sales by consumer classification

Class of consumer % consumption
1990 1991 1992 1993
Mining 16.61 16.89 16.76 16.90
Industrial 48.22 45.07 44.84 39.83
Farming 8.69 9.28 8.76 7.67
Commercial & lighting 10.15 11.61 12.34 13.40
Domestic metered 12.33 16.47
Domestic load limited 4.98 5.73
Total domestic 16.33 17.16 17.31 22.21





Source: ZESA Annual report 1993

2.3 Energy demand projection

2.3.1 Assumptions

The following assumptions were used in making energy projections shown in Table 2.14. The projections are based on energy demand and macro-economic data presented in the UNEP/Southern Centre GHG Abatement Costing Study for Zimbabwe carried out in 1993. These figures included the following:

Analysis of the energy use by fuel figures for Zimbabwe for 1980 to 1992 which shows no major change in percentage contribution of each fuel to the total national energy balance.

GDP projections presented in the UNEP/Southern Centre GHG report. These were adopted as correct together with the figures for energy intensity of production and the Autonomous Energy Efficiency Improvement Factors assumed in that report.

Energy intensity factors and AEEI values for the Zimbabwean economy.

An additional assumption was made that the percentage contribution by fuel will remain as in 1990 and the total energy use can be split by fuel using those figures in the forecast years.

For the electricity sector which forms a key segment in this study, the present ZESA

development plan was adopted.



Table 2.14. Energy demand by fuel in TJ

% 1990 2010 2030 2050
Coal

Ethanol

Jet A1

Gasoline

Diesel

AvGas

Wood

47.6

0.3

1.3

3.5

8.0

0.1

39.2

137189

840

3752

10132

23071

145

113050

229112

1402

6266

16929

38529

242

188799

348492

2133

9531

25737

58605

368

287173

496916

3042

13590

36699

83566

525

409481

Total 100.0 288179 481273 732042 1043822





Source: Southern Centre projections



2.3.2 Coal demand forecast

Since the opening of the Hwange power station in 1984, coal demand has been dominated mainly by coal requirements for electricity generation. Before that, the supply regime was geared more toward industrial demand for boiler coal and for coke. In the future, coal demand will be influenced more by the following factors.

Power generation at Hwange units 7 & 8 which are to be commissioned in the year 2000. This will result in an additional coal demand of 1.1 million tonnes per year

From the year 1995 to year 2000, regional hydropower of 400 MW will be available through Cahora Bassa line. This will reduce the demand for coal for electricity generation in this period unless ZESA chooses to maximise domestic generation by base loading its thermal units.

Refurbishment of old thermal power plants which is due for completion by year 1996. These plants will then re-enter the electricity supply system and account for additional coal demand.

Economic growth driven increase in coal demand for mining and products such as base metals, tobacco, pulp and paper and textiles.

It is also expected that the adoption of energy efficient technologies would reduce energy intensity of industrial production and thereby place downward pressure on coal demand. This factor, however, is not expected to have a significant influence as economic growth would have an upward push on demand.

Department of Energy Resources and Development of Zimbabwe, in 1992, and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) of the World Bank carried out an exercise to develop an integrated energy strategy for Zimbabwe. The exercise projected coal demand up to 2010 based on growth trends in energy demand for the period 1981-89. Coal demand was projected for a number of scenarios. These included:

A trend case with a GDP growth rate of 3.0% p.a.

A policy-neutral case with a GDP growth rate of 4.5% p.a. and little or no energy demand management practised.

A policy active scenario with a GDP growth 4.5% p.a.

and a demand management case involving measures to improve energy efficiency.

Using data in these scenarios, this study revised the policy active scenario and produced new projections shown below in Table 2.15.

2.3.3 Liquid fuel demand forecast

Liquid fuel demand is dependent on the vehicle mix and fleet size. As the economy grows there will be a larger population albeit of more efficient motor vehicles. Demand for road transport for freight will increase with the increased demand for movement of manufactured goods. It is difficult to make demand projections for liquid fuels based on historical trends due to the changes in economic policy that have caused a major shift in economic activities. Further, liquid fuel demand is not considered for assessing environmental impact in present study.

Table 2.15. Coal demand forecast 1989 to 2010 ('000 tonnes)

Sector 1990 1995 2000 2010
Agriculture

Electricity

Industry

Mining

Transport

Other

Exports

395

2685

1211

87

190

281

66

395

811

1729

60

216

350

66

395

3014

1891

60

10

437

66

395

3116

2348

60

10

678

66

Total 4915 3627 5873 6673





Source: Southern Centre/ESMAP



2.3.4 Demand forecast for electricity

The electrical energy forecast for Zimbabwe has been based on knowledge of historical demand regressed to project future demand. The demand projection is typical of developing systems where the early pattern is almost a straight line that changes to exponential function as the economy grows. Successes achieved with the use of historical data in the short term have been due to the system being still in the first part of the curve and the dependence of the supplied demand on utility investment. There are a number of developments in the country that are set to increase domestic load significantly. These include the following:

The economy has a large number of (mainly domestic) consumers whose demand is not being met due to limited investment on the part of the utility, and the potential additional demand could be 100 to 200 MW.

There are a few industrial projects that are in the pipeline including a 38 MW platinum mine and the construction of several industrial entities in the major cities.

There has been a very large country-wide housing development initiative by both the private sector and government, and urban accommodation is now virtually built for connection of electricity.

It is therefore forecast that demand will increase steadily in the foreseeable future. The ZESA load forecast shown below is based on trend analysis and the development plans submitted by industry.



Table 2.16. Electrical energy demand forecast (GWh)

Sector 1994 1995 2000
Agriculture

Industry

Mining

ZESA

Domestic

Commerce

818

3458

1356

11

1843

1144

848

3639

1414

11

1912

1190

990

4399

1715

13

2283

1420

Total 8630 9014 10820





Source: ZESA load forecast



2.4 Energy supply options

The system development plans for ZESA are based on the criteria that the internal generation should be equal or excess to the demand and the system should be planned for a minimum reserve of 25% with imports exceeding or meeting the reserve margin.

The current development plans include refurbishment of the existing plants, augmenting cooling capacity and control equipment upgrading at the Hwange power station, construction of interconnectors, and construction of new plant at Batoka, Sengwa, and Hwange. Demand Side Management is not included in the ZESA's development plans. The following section provides some information on the utility's system development plan and a list of major projects indicating the sequence and dates.



2.5 Management structure of the energy sector

The Ministry of Transport and Energy is the responsible authority for energy policy and for public administration of the energy sector in Zimbabwe. The organ responsible for the day-today administration of this sector is Department of Energy in this Ministry.

The Department of Energy (DOE) is headed by a director who reports to the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry.

The DOE does not have exclusive control over all matters in the energy sector. A number of other institutions including other Government Ministries, international oil companies, private mining companies and the National Railways of Zimbabwe influence activities in this sector particularly with respect to pricing of energy products such as coal and petroleum.

Management of the coal sector falls under the Ministry of Mines, and the involvement of the Ministry of Energy is mainly as a major consumer through ZESA which operates all coal thermal power plants in the country.

Table 2.17. Zimbabwe electrical energy supply system development plan

Project Capacity Addition (MW) Years
Kariba refurbishment

Small thermal refurbishment

Interconnector to South Africa

Cahora Bassa

Hwange upgrading

Hwange 7

Hwange 8

Batoka

Sengwa 1

Sengwa 2

Sengwa 3

84

120

400

500

reliability

220

220

800

220

220

220

1994 - 1997

1994 - 1996

1994 - 1995

1994 - 1996

1994 - 1996

1996 - 2000

1996 - 2000

1997 - 2004

1998 - 2004

1999 - 2004

2001 - 2006





The projects carry a total investment cost of US $ 2804730-00

Source: ZESA



Table 2.18. Electrical energy development plan

Project Year Capacity MW
Hydro Thermal Total
RSA Intercountry

Cahora Bassa

Hwange Upgrade

Old Thermal Refurb

Kariba Refurb

Hwange 8

Hwange 7

Sengwa 2

Sengwa 1

Batoka

Sengwa 3

1995

1996

1996

1996

1997

2000

2000

2004

2004

2004

2006



500

84







800

400



120

220

220

220

220

220

400

900

900

1020

1104

1324

1544

1764

1984

2784

3004





Source: ZESA



Coal mining in Zimbabwe has until 1989 been the monopoly of the Wankie Colliery Company, a subsidiary of the Anglo American Corporation. This company mined and controlled the only economically viable deposits in the country, the Wankie Concession area. Following independence in 1980 Government took 40 % share of the colliery company and allowed a second company Sencol, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Zimbabwe, to mine a second deposit at Sengwa. Sencol coal is mainly used in the steel industry.

Wankie Colliery Company operates on a Government guaranteed cost-plus pricing formula and controls 100% of the coking coal market and 95.6% of total coal production in the country. The significance of this monopoly is that the company has had no cause to improve production efficiency.

The electricity sector is the sole supply domain of Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) which generates, imports and distributes all electrical energy in the country except for a few small private generators run either as stand alone systems in remote communities or as back-up systems by large urban companies and in some schools and hospitals.



3 Environmental impacts of energy related activities

3.1 Energy environment linkages: a general overview

Environmental impact is any alteration of environmental conditions or creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the project under consideration. Impact on environment depends on the nature, scale and location of the activity. Environmental impacts include effects on the natural resource base; quality of air, water, noise, biological & socio-economic components of environment; effect on public health and also cost of environmental management.

The range of environmental issues related to energy generation, transmission and use is very extensive. The relative significance attached to different environmental issues varies widely. Environmental problems have to be considered in terms of:

global issues, particularly global warming

national or regional issues, where the scope is a few hundred or thousand miles

local impacts (i.e. within a few miles of an energy facility)

workplace exposure to high temperatures, dust, particulates, sulphur dioxide and high humidity for industry and agriculture.

Local environmental concerns raised by coal fired power generation relate to the environmental pollution caused by the following activities:

coal mining and storage in the mining premises, as well as its transportation, handling, crushing and storage in the power station premises,

coal combustion, steam generation, which contribute to GHG emissions

condenser cooling water disposal and wastewater treatment.

These activities are discussed in greater detail under section 3.3 below.

Local impacts, which are generally site-related, are perhaps the longest established category. The environmental damage can range from the aesthetic (impact of thermal power plant in remote countryside) to airborne pollution (particulate deposition from fossil fuel use) to ecological change (flooding in hydro schemes).

The national/ regional category of environmental impacts which mainly include acid rain and global warming is mainly of post-second worldwar vintage. CO2 is responsible for around 50% of the impact of the various greenhouse gases associated with global warming. The energy sector as a whole is responsible for the great bulk of this and the power sector is in turn responsible for the majority of the energy sector's contribution. It is therefore clear that at all levels coal combustion in the electric power sector is a major contributor to environmental problems.



3.2 Global issues

3.2.1 Global warming

Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in the atmosphere and plays an important role in almost all living organisms. Measurements show that its concentration has been on the rise, and since industrialization it has gone up by nearly 25 percent. The main cause is considered to be burning of fossil fuels, during which carbon contained in the fuels is oxidized and released into the atmosphere. The destruction of forests has also contributed to this rise as the vegetation provides a sink for roughly one half of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere stays while the other half is absorbed by the ocean and plants. Prediction models suggest that as a result of the combined effect of increased emissions of CO2 and other green house gases the Earth's average surface temperature would increase by 1.5 to 4.5oC (UNEP, 1993). This seemingly marginal increase will have far reaching consequences in terms of changes in climate, rain fall patterns, agricultural practices and sea levels.

3.2.2 Acid rain

Coal is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur with small amounts of other trace elements. When coal is burnt in an adequate amount of oxygen, its combustion produces heat energy as a result of the chemical reactions which take place when the combustible components of coal viz. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Sulphur (S) are oxidized. The sulphur present in coal is of two types:

Inorganic Sulphur (mainly present as pyrites)

Organic Sulphur (forms the part of overall coal matrix)

Most of the inorganic sulphur can be removed by coal beneficiation techniques but only part of organic sulphur can be removed by chemical treatment although at exorbitant costs.

The oxides of sulphur (SOx) and of nitrogen (NOx) are the principal chemical pollutant products of coal combustion. When these gases are emitted by the power station chimneys, over half of the emissions fall to earth in dry form, relatively near the source. In the presence of sunlight and other chemical oxidants present in the atmosphere, some of the remaining air-borne sulphur and nitrogen oxides are transformed into sulphites and nitrates and finally these sulphites and nitrates form H2SO4 and HNO3. These acids which deposit in wet form about 200-1000 km away from the source are known as acid rain.

The impacts of acid rain are most pronounced on:

Quality of lake water and aquatic habitat

Vegetation

Fertility of sensitive soils and

Mutilation of monuments and structures of immense architectural value



3.3 Local environmental impacts

3.3.1 Environmental impacts of coal mining

Coal production involves acquisition of large surface land both for underground and opencast mines and results in varying impact on environment and ecology.

Air borne emissions from coal mining consist of particulates, NOx, CO, hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds. These emanate at mine, coal and waste storage piles and preparation plants. However, the impact is normally limited to local areas. Uncontrolled fires resulting from spontaneous combustion in abandoned mines and coal piles overburden dumps produce noxious gases. Surface mining emissions come from diesel equipments and blasting operations. The air quality impacts of underground mining are negligible.

The environmental problems of serious nature related to coal mining are:

Land degradation

Change in land use patterns due to mining and disposal of overburden

Deforestation during the mining operation

Soil erosion and land slides

Disruption of drainage pattern of the area

Run-off waste from mines, soil dumps, coal dumps leading to siltation in stream/water bodies

Water quality degradation due to discharge of mine water into streams, water bodies etc.

Leaching and erosion of coal dumps and waste dumps

Air pollution due to dust and noxious fumes

Noise and ground vibrations

Socio-economic factors like displacement of families and rehabilitation

Health and safety of workers

3.3.2 Environmental impacts of coal transportation

Coal is more difficult to transport compared to liquid petroleum products because of its bulky form. Frequently, more than one transportation mode is required to move it to the point of consumption. The environmental impacts of coal transportation are spread over the total distance of the transportation corridor and are often not immediately visible. The impacts include habitat loss, community disruption, fugitive dust, increase in noise, and accidents in developing transportation corridors. During the actual transportation of coal the impacts are generation of fugitive dust, smoke and noise.

3.3.3 Environmental impacts of coal based thermal power generation

Environmental impacts of coal based thermal power generation relate to coal handling, storage and combustion at the power station. The major environmental impacts of coal handling activities at the power plant relate to noise, solid waste generated in coal crushing, and the fugitive dust emissions therefrom. Coal is burned in boilers to generate steam. During this process gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants are generated. Gaseous emissions during coal combustion include suspended particulate matter, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide.

Atmospheric emissions of solid particles during coal combustion usually vary in sizes from 0.01 to 10 micrometre in diameter. While large particles are removed by the emission control system efficiently, smaller particles are difficult to capture. These smaller particles in the range of 0.01 to 1.0 micrometre are easily respirable and have adverse effect on human health. The smallest of particles get deposited in the alveoli of pulmonary regions while the larger ones tend to be deposited in the nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial regions. These particles remain in the respiratory system for 2 to 6 weeks. However, particles of a size less than 0.01 micro metre in diameter are not usually deposited in the respiratory systems.

For every million Kcals released by the combustion of coal, 385 kg of Carbon Dioxide is emitted. Concern has grown over the climatic changes brought about by increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere because of its absorption of infra-red radiation from the earth. High levels of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere would produce the "Green House Effect" which is understood to be increasing the global temperature.

The oxides of nitrogen are produced by oxidation of nitrogen in air during coal burning, and to a much lesser extent by the oxidation of nitrogenous compound in coal. The environmentally important species of nitrogen oxide are nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Nitrogen oxide is a strong irritant and can cause inflammation of the lungs as well as damage to crops and forests when combined with sulphur dioxide from acid rain.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is formed as a result of oxidation of sulphur present in coal in the process of combustion and it escapes into the atmosphere and gets deposited locally or is converted into sulphuric acid or sulphates. Its impacts include human health hazards, damage to crops and forests, metal corrosion and acid rain.

The liquid waste problems associated with thermal power plants are due to discharge of wastewater from the following different sources:

Circulating water from condensers

Overflow from ash pond

Boiler blow down

Cooling tower blow down

Wastewater from regeneration of demineralization plant

Wastewater from water treatment plants viz. sludge from clarifier and backwash water from filters etc.

Wastewater from oil storage and handling area

Wastewater from equipment cleaning including boilers

Rain-fall run off from coal pile storage

Floor drains etc.

These wastewaters contain residual chlorine, chromium/zinc sulphates, dissolved and suspended solids. As temperature of these wastewaters is higher than ambient temperature, discharge of wastewater in waterbodies affects the aquatic ecosystem downstream of discharge point.

Ash produced in a thermal power station is of two categories viz: bottom ash and fly ash. During coal combustion, as much as 80 to 85% of the incombustible fines leave with combustion gases as fly ash, the remainder is collected as bottom ash. The bottom ash is collected in boiler bottom hoppers and fly ash in electrostatic precipitator hoppers. Normally the ash is dumped in low lying waste areas where about 10 to 15 metres of depth is available which helps in reclaiming the land. If such land is not available man-made lagoons near the power stations are created. If the size of the fly ash pond is smaller than that desirable, especially in older plants, a substantial amount of fly ash is carried into the river system. Improper construction and maintenance of fly ash dykes causes breaches and subsequent pollution of the receiving water body.

3.3.4 Environmental impacts of coal utilization in industry

Coal is used in industry for steam generation in boilers and smelting furnaces. Both these operations require coal transportation, storage and combustion. Compared to thermal power plants efficiency of coal utilization in industry is low. Environmental impacts of coal utilization in industry are similar to those of thermal power plant. However, total emissions are distributed over a large area.



3.4 Energy related environmental issues in Zimbabwe

3.4.1 Coal mining

Major problems in coal mining in Zimbabwe relate to water pollution, coal fines disposal and emissions from the coke ovens plant. The problem of overburden disposal at Wankie Colliery Company is partly reduced due to use of overburden coal in Hwange power station.

In Zimbabwe, effluent from mining works is monitored adequately and controlled, but toxic residues do enter the ecosystem as usually sterile, sometimes toxic, waste. The major legislations controlling pollution from mining activities are the Hazardous Substances Act and the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, which are administered by the Department of Environmental Health in the Ministry of Health. Major problems in implementation relate to lack of infrastructure and instrumentation facility for monitoring.

The Wankie colliery has a processing plant which screens coal according to pebble sizes and also washes coal for the coking plant and for industry. Washing reduces the ash content and the sulfur content. The waste water from the washing plant is recycled but some water is lost through evaporation and spillage. The coal dust removed through washing is settled out of the water and is piled in dumps. The washing process takes about 40% of the colliery output and recovers about 88% of the coal that goes through the process and is aimed at reducing ash content to below 10%. The colliery now uses a centrifuge to recover washery water as opposed to settling tanks which caused higher losses. The colliery has plans to blend waste from the washery with coal fines, which are 10% to 20% of total production, to produce coal with about 25% ash. Trials are underway to use the coal fines in the production of electrical energy at the Hwange Power Station.

From the 2 million tonnes of the processed coal, the Wankie Colliery generates fines at a rate of 9 percent of total. To date, between 2 and 3 million tonnes of these fines have accumulated. Coal fines are presently stockpiled to waste at the coal washing plant at Wankie Colliery. The stockpiled fines represent an environmental hazard in the form of (potentially explosive) dust or through filtration into the soil or ground water systems of the acid from the iron pyrite present in the coal.

About 584000 tonnes of coke are produced every year for industrial use, most of which is in the iron and steel industry. Coke is now a preferred option for firing bricks since it can be mixed with the clay and fired at a better efficiency. The coke ovens produce by-products such as benzol, tar, ammonia and coke oven gas. The benzol is sold to a chemical plant for distillation and the tar is sold as fuel to industry. The ammonia is disposed of in wastewater and the coke oven gas is flared. A project for the coke oven gas to be used in the power station for boiler starting and flame stabilization in place of diesel has already been constructed and is to be commissioned soon.

The Mines and Minerals Act in Zimbabwe overrides most other acts in that few restrictions are attached to the exploitation of mining rights once the mining permit has been obtained. Thus, the Act does not prevent extensive tree cutting without reforestation, poaching by mine workers, siltation, dumps and non-compliance with quittance requirements when mines are closed.

Wankie colliery has initiated rehabilitation and revegetation programme on a pilot scale in abandoned mine sites.

3.4.2 Coal combustion

No documented information is available related to environmental impact of thermal power generation in Zimbabwe. However, it is known that Hwange power station has installed Electrostatic Precipitators for removal of flyash. A desulphurization unit is not installed. Also, Hwange power station is facing a flyash disposal problem.

In the absence of institutionalized environmental monitoring mechanism, data on industrial sources of air pollution and status of pollution control is not available.

3.4.3 Ambient air quality

Limited data is available for ambient air quality monitoring undertaken by the University of Zimbabwe for locations near Harare city which is presented in Table 3.1. It is evident that even in 1988, levels of SO2 in the City Centre and industrial area were very high. Harare and Bulawayo experience smog during winter. The major problem in air pollution control relates to lack of monitoring facilities. The only facilities in Zimbabwe for air sampling and analysis are located at University of Zimbabwe. Urban councils are expected to monitor sources of air pollution and ambient air quality. However, these councils do not have infrastructure for the same.



3.5 Environmental policies and institutions in Zimbabwe

3.5.1 Environmental legislation

Major enactments in Zimbabwe related to environment are:

Natural Resources Act (1941)

Forest Act (1981) Amendment

Parks and Wildlife Act (1975)

Mines and Minerals Act (1961)

Hazardous Substances and Articles Act (1977)

Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (1971)

Water Act (1976)

Regional Town and Country Planning Act (1976)

Communal Land Act (1982)

Communal Forest Produce Act (1982)

Rural District Council Act (1988)



Table 3.1. The maximum and minimum levels of gases at Mazoe Farmlands, Mt. Hampden and University Campus (1990)

Maximum (microgram/m3) Minimum (microgram/m3)
Place SO2 HCl NO2 NH3 SO2 HCl NO2 NH3
Mazowe farms

Mt. Hampden

University

1.37

1.30

54.60

1.14

1.17

23.70

0.89

0.55

8.70

1.54

1.56

14.20

0.28

0.26

1.34

0.71

0.72

1.04

0.30

0.30

1.50

0.39

0.72

0.95





Ambient concentrations of gases (1988) (microgram/m3 under STP)

University (27) City Centre (38)
Pollutant Diurnal mean Annual mean Diurnal mean Annual mean
Min Max Mean S.D. Min Max Mean S.D.
SO2

NO2

NH3

HCl

2.0

2.0

1.9

9.0

52.6

17.2

38.1

55.1

25.6

5.0

8.0

30.6

23.4

5.3

2.8

14.7

4.0

2.0

2.0

16.5

142.3

28.0

40.9

78.0

60.1

12.8

14.0

43.9

52.7

7.3

10.6

13.0

III Industrial Area (36) Msasa (Fertilizer Plant 14)
SO2

NO2

NH3

HCl

14.0

3.0

6.0

10.0

120.2

75.0

45.0

56.0

67.2

20.4

24.5

35.6

28.9

15.2

13.8

11.8

14.0

4.5

2.0

14.8

242.0

27.4

45.3

77.0

101.1

13.5

15.8

40.5

70.8

8.9

16.5

26.3





* figures in parenthesis are total number of samples

Source: Jannalgodda, S.B. and Mathutbu, Environmental Quality Assessment: Studies on Air and Water Quality in Harare, Zimbabwe

The Mines and Minerals Act overrides all other acts and mines can be set up wherever minerals exist and at times with serious environmental consequences. Air Pollution standards in Zimbabwe have been adapted from international standards. The country has been divided into 17 smoke/dust control zones to facilitate air pollution monitoring.

A major problem with environmental legislation is the fragmented nature of the legislation and the lack of enforcement power in the Ministry of Environment and Tourism.

3.5.2 Environmental management institutions

In Zimbabwe, the Department of Natural Resources (DNR), which is under the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, is responsible for setting standards for environmental quality, mitigation of adverse impacts of new projects and providing information on environment. The major thrust of DNR is environmental education. Water Pollution Advisory Board (WPAB) in the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources monitors water pollution around urban areas. There is an Air Pollution Control Unit in the Ministry of Health which monitors levels of atmospheric pollution. The Ministry of Land, Agriculture and Water Development is responsible for soil conservation practices. The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare is responsible for various health related practices in industry. An overview of environmental management institutions in Zimbabwe is presented in Table 3.2.

3.5.3 Future direction for environmental management in Zimbabwe

Environmental issues are taking an increasingly high priority in Zimbabwe. The Government presented its National Conservation Strategy (NCS) in 1987, which aims "to integrate sustainable resource use with every aspect of the Nation's social and economic development and to rehabilitate those resources which are already degraded". The NCS proposed setting up an Environmental Monitoring Unit, creating a separate Ministry of the Environment, and establishing an Inter-Ministerial Committee for the environment to co-ordinate the implementation of the NCS.

Progress has been modest so far. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism was recently renamed the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, but the Environmental Monitoring Unit and Inter-Ministerial Committee are not yet active. Responsibility for environmental policy remains scattered among a variety of Ministries and Boards in Zimbabwe, including the Ministry of Health (for air pollution), the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Water Resources and Development (for water pollution and energy conservation), the Natural Resources Board, and the Forestry Commission.

Monitoring and enforcement of environmental standards is not co-ordinated and therefore lacks effectiveness. Fines for infringing standards, which in some cases remain at the nominal level set in 1971, do not provide sufficient incentive to invest in pollution abatement equipment. In addition, foreign exchange constraints in the 1980 made it difficult for industries to invest in "cleaner" or more energy efficient process technology or equipment.

Table 3.2. Environmental institutions in Zimbabwe

Institution Agencies/Depts etc. Responsibility Legislation
Ministry of Environment and Tourism Dept. of Natural Resources

Dept of National Parks & Wildlife

Environment Monitoring Unit

Conservation Committees

Conserve and enhance environmental quality

Management of parks/wildlife estates

Afforestation policies

Natural Resources Act

Forest Act

Communal Land Forest Act

Hazardous Substances and Articles Act

Interministerial Committee for the Environment Preparing action plan following National Conservation Strategy yet to be established
Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and Development Water Pollution Advisory Board

Water Pollution Control Unit

Control of water quality and effluents

Energy conservation

Water Act
Ministry of Health Air Pollution Advisory Board

Atmospheric Pollution Control Unit

Hazardous Substances Control Board (also Control unit)

Control, abatement, prevention of air pollution

Classification of hazardous substances

Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act

Hazardous Substances and Articles Act

Ministry of Local Govt., Urban and Rural Development Dept. of Rural Development Rural development (overlaps with AGRITEX)
Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Rural Settlement AGRITEX (Agricultural, Technical & Extension services) Soil conservation and land planning at farm level Mines and Minerals Act

Communal Lands Act

Ministry of Community and Co-operative Development Community development at village level
Non-Governmental Organisations-Environment and Development
Environment and Development Activities: ENDA

Zimbabwean Environmental Organisation (ZERO)

Zero and ENDA have completed an NGO report on the state of the environment in Zimbabwe for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Brazil 1992)





Source: The Economic Implications of Limiting CO2 Emissions in Zimbabwe, January 1992



The Ministry of the Environment is now in the process of preparing action plans to implement the NCS, and the Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries (CZI) is taking an active role in promoting environmental awareness and spreading best practices among its members. In addition there is a variety of non-governmental organisations active in the environmental field. The emphasis of environmental policy will clearly be on local pollution issues - particularly problems of water pollution in the areas around Harare and Bulawayo, degradation of land in communal areas, and the adverse impact of deforestation on fuelwood supplies and soil quality.

Industrialists in Zimbabwe are now concerned with three possible consequences of failing to heed the global and national calls for better practices. These are:

the negative effect on selling their products in European and American markets which might use environmental regulations and environmental performance as non-tariff barriers for exports,

the possibility of introduction and enforcement of harsher local environmental legislation if they fail to take positive initiative

the possibility that the new policy and legislation may happen without their input

The implications of continued environmental damage at the production level should provide sufficient impetus to industry to carry out responsible environmental actions. This situation is one where self-interest and national-interest coincide.



3.6 Environmental impacts of proposed developmental plans in energy sector

In Zimbabwe, coal meets more than 45% of the total energy demand followed by fuel wood which meets 40% of the demand. The implementation of strategies to reduce demand is more conceivable in the organized industrial sectors (thermal power generation and manufacturing) than in the domestic sector utilizing wood. Hence, the development of emission scenarios in the present study is limited to impact of coal utilization. While reduction of greenhouse gases is directly related to reduction in demand, reductions in emissions of other gaseous, liquid and solid wastes is a function of the control technologies that are adopted. In the absence of data on present status of pollution control no attempt is made in the present study to develop alternate scenarios. The scope of this study is thus limited to highlighting alarming dimensions of the environmental impact of energy related activities. This could convince decision makers on the necessity of formulating national policies and developing appropriate institutional mechanisms as recommended in the study.

The approaches adopted in the present study for developing emission scenario comprise:

Forecasting coal demand for years 1995, 2000 and 2010

Estimation of theoretical emission factors assuming average coal composition as that for Wankie Colliery based on ultimate coal analysis and 100% combustion

Survey of emission factors available in literature for coal mining and coal combustion

Working out total emissions for the present and projected coal demand for coal mining and coal combustion in thermal power plants and industries

Data that is currently available on the above actors is given in Tables 3.3 to 3.7 while Table 3.8 gives some information on the impact of capacity expansion of coal-based thermal power plants.



Table 3.3. Emission factors for coal mining

Range (T.E. Edgar) Present Study
Particulate matter

Wastewater

SS in wastewater

TDS in wastewater

Coal dust

Vegetation cover removal

0.005-6.6 lbs/t

25-85 gallon/t

500-2000 mg/l

500-800 mg/l

-

1.500 kg/t

225.000 lit/t

1.500 mg/l

0.600 mg/l

9 %

1.000 ha/1000 t







Table 3.4. Comparison of emission factors for coal based power plants

Component AC Stern

kg/t

TE Edgar

kg/t

WHO

kg/t

Theoretical

kg/t

Particulates 7.73 A(1-E) 7.73 A 8 A 10 A
SO2 17.27 S 17.27 S 19 S 20 S
NOx 9.091 8.182 9.000
CO2: Based on carbon content

Based on heating value

C = .871 (58.2+23.8) = .714 kg/kg

CO2 = 36.7 C = 2.62 kg/kg

Calorific value = 27.5 MJ/kg

CO2 emission = 95 kg/GJ

1 GJ heat comes from 36.36 kg coal

1 kg of coal results in 2.61 kg of CO2















Note: Particulate emission include both flue gas emissions and ash

Normally ESPs recover 99.5% of particulate matter

Source: Stern, A.C. (1977). Air Pollution Vol. IV, Engineering Control of Air Pollution, Academic Press, London

Edgar, T.E. (1993). Coal Processing and Pollution Control, Gulf Publishing Company, London

WHO (1982). Rapid Assessment of Sources of Air, Water, and Land Pollution, WHO Offset Publication No. 62



Table 3.5. Emission factors adopted in present study

Component Emission kg/tonne
Particulates

SO2

NOx

CO2

10.0 * % ash

19.0 * % sulphur

9.0

2.61

Ash content 16%

Sulphur content 2.5%







Table 3.6. Total emissions from coal mining

1990 1995 2000 2010
A. Coal for Power Gen.
Particulate matter, tonnes/year 4027.5 1216.5 4521.0 4674.0
B. Coal for Industrial use
Particulate matter, tonnes/year

Wastewater, cum/year

SS in wastewater, tonnes/year

TDS in wastewater, tonnes/year

Coal dust, '000 tonnes/year

Vegetation cover removal, ha/year

1816.5

272475.0

408.7

163.5

109.0

3896.0

2593.5

389025.0

583.5

233.4

156.0

2540.0

2836.5

425475.0

638.2

255.3

170.0

4905.0

3522.0

528300.0

792.4

317.0

211.0

5464.0







Table 3.7. Total emissions from coal combustion (tonnes/year)

1990 1995 2000 2010
A. Power generation
Particulates

SO2

NOx

CO

HC

CO2

429600.0

1275.4

24165.0

1342.5

402.7

7007.8

129760.0

385.2

7299.0

405.5

121.6

2116.7

482240.0

1431.6

27126.0

1507.0

452.1

7866.5

498560.0

1480.1

28044.0

1558.0

467.4

8132.8

B. Industrial boilers
Particulates

SO2

NOx

CO

HC

CO2

193760.0

575.2

10899.0

605.5

181.6

3160.7

276640.0

821.3

15561.0

864.5

259.3

4512.7

302560.0

898.2

17019.0

945.5

283.6

4935.5

375680.0

1115.3

21132.0

1174.0

352.2

6128.3

C. Total of A&B
Particulates

SO2

NOx

CO

HC

CO2

623360.0

1850.6

35064.0

1948.0

584.4

10168.6

406400.0

1206.5

22860.0

1270.0

381.0

6629.4

784800.0

2329.875

44145.000

2452.500

735.750

12802.050

874200.0

2995.400

49176.000

2732.000

819.600

14261.040





80-85% of particulates would escape to atmosphere unless arrested in pollution control systems

Table 3.8. Impact of capacity expansion of coal based thermal power plant

Primary impact Secondary Impact Tertiary Impact
Increase in coal demand Increase in mining activity



Increase in coal washeries activity

Increase in coal transportation activity

Vegetation cover removal, mine water disposal, coal fine disposal

Increase in quantity of rejects to be disposed off

Increase in demand for road/rail transport

Increase in air pollutants emission Increase in ambient air

pollutants levels

Damage to human health, vegetation and material, climate change, acid rain
Increase in heat emissions Increase in ambient temperature Changes in local meteorological conditions
Increase in cooling water demand Increase in cooling water quantity to be disposed in receiving waterbody Impact on aquatic ecosystem
Increase in quantity of flyash to be disposed Increase in cost of disposal





3.7 Options for minimization of environmental impacts

Energy demand is bound to increase in future and so will the magnitude of adverse environmental impact. The mitigation options available include devising and implementing strategies for:

Reduction of adverse environmental impacts related to coal based power generation and coal use in industry through reduction in electricity/coal demand

Installation of pollution control devices in thermal power plants and air polluting industries

Restoration of environmental quality through reclamation and revegetation of abandoned mine sites

Reduction of environmental impacts through coal/electricity demand management is the most preferred option. This could be achieved through curtailing auxiliary consumption in thermal power plants and implementation of energy conservation measures in industrial units. Energy conservation measures range from improved house-keeping to adoption of energy efficient technologies. Apart from benefiting the environment, these measures would also result in net savings to industry and conservation of valuable coal resources. Thus energy conservation is a "negative cost" option. The institutional mechanism to generate awareness about energy conservation and trained manpower to develop energy efficiency programmes are, at present, inadequate in Zimbabwe. Also, promotion of energy efficient technologies would require careful selection, acquisition and adaptation of technologies. It is, thus, necessary to have a national focal point to address these challenging tasks.

After reducing environmental impacts by energy demand management to the extent possible, it will be necessary to employ environmental management technologies to further reduce impacts. A host of technologies are available for the control of air and water pollution, and for solid waste management. A review of these technologies is presented in Annexes I to VI.

The economic viability of these technologies depends on size and location of source of pollution (thermal power plant/industry), and the selection of appropriate technology requires data on source and ambient air/water quality. At present there is no centralized institutional mechanism for environmental monitoring. Environmental legislation is fragmented and lacks implementation due to inadequate infrastructure. Development of institutional set-up with proper instrumentation facilities and trained manpower is a pre-requisite for enforcing existing legislation for effective pollution control.

Information on environmental damage due to air/water/solid wastes from energy related activities is not available. Wankie Colliery Company has tried a restoration and revegetation programme for abandoned mine sites. Restoration of environmental damage would require co-ordinated effort on the part of industry and the government.

In the past, with participation of the Government of Zimbabwe, projects were undertaken through international funding to assess energy-environment linkages and potential for energy conservation. Most of the recommendations of these studies are yet to be implemented. Barriers to implementation of the recommendations have been assessed in the present report so as to:

identify steps that should be taken to improve on-going programmes

establish mechanism for expanding existing institutional set-up to effectively implement energy conservation and environmental management programmes

suggest the structuring of a national focal point for energy efficiency programmes in the form of an autonomous centre to assist industry and government departments



4 Review of studies on energy efficiency in Zimbabwe

4.1 Approach

The present study considers "negative cost" options as part of the implementation strategy to minimize negative environmental impacts. It has been established in several studies that there exist negative cost or economically viable options for industry in energy conservation. Industries have however not taken up the options even after study reports have been presented to them indicating viability of the options. Options suggested in various studies so far have been reviewed herein.



4.2 Options suggested in UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study

During the UNEP funded greenhouse gas country studies several options were considered for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in Zimbabwe. The options included energy use in industrial processes. The economic evaluation of the options considered the capital cost as given in project feasibility studies and quotations obtained from equipment suppliers. The analysis then modelled the fuel use and the operation and maintenance costs of the reference case and the reduction option given the project lifetime. Annual costs were derived which showed the cost of the project in relation to the reductions in carbon dioxide emissions per year. The analysis was from the point of view of the economy and therefore taxes and duties were not included.

The following table shows some of the results obtained. The table does not include positive cost options which are not the concern of this study.



Table 4.1. Summary of options in UNEP GHG abatement studies in Zimbabwe

Reduction Option Z$/ton CO2 Units/

size

Type Units

in

2010

Energy Saved (PJ)

2010

Energy carrier saved
Tillage

Coke Oven Gas for Hwange

Efficient Boilers

Savings in industry

Prepayment Meters

Geyser Timeswitch

Efficient motors

-1049.6

-104.8

-23.0

-14.0

-83.3

-147.9

-86.9

1

15 mill

100

200

1000

tractor

litres diesel

tonnes/hr steam

units

units

kW

1227

1

635

3000

61000

14000

.31

.59

6.95

.06

.82

.64

diesel

diesel

coal

various

elec-coal

elec-coal

elec-coal







The energy saved in 2010 is an indication of the penetration to be achieved by the efforts at that time. This information was based on the knowledge of the economy and the potential for energy conservation. Some of the projects like the Coke Oven Gas option are being implemented by industry for economic purposes.



The above graph shows potential savings of 69.6 PJ in 2010 and 178 PJ in 2030, representing respectively, 15% and 24% of total demand. These are significant amounts of savings for industry and they should generate sufficient interest from government and industry especially when it is considered that the conservation options will benefit the economy as well. The following is a description of some of the options for energy savings.

The option of using coke oven gas for Hwange power station has been accepted and is being implemented by the Wankie Colliery Company and ZESA to reduce the consumption of Diesel fuel. The option is being implemented not as an environmental protection measure but as a cost cutting measure for the WCC, ZESA and the government.

Zimbabwean industries rely on the locally produced boilers for process steam raising. The boilers are made under license and 70% of the market is supplied by a single manufacturer. The manufacturer designs boilers to an efficiency of 74%. This level of performance can be achieved through correct operation of the boiler including fuel quality, water quality, fuel air mixture and boiler maintenance. In some companies the following areas where improvements can be achieved have been identified:

steam blowers are not used regularly,

the air/fuel mixture is not monitored,

water treatment is not employed,

fuel quality fluctuates and boiler controls are not checked frequently.

The resultant efficiency of the boilers was therefore estimated at 50% on the average. The study assumed that the boilers could be redesigned to an efficiency of 79% as opposed to the current 74% and operation procedures could also be improved. No measures are initiated for implementation of the option.

The Zimbabwean industry also relies on locally produced electric motors. Before the recent liberalization of the economy, foreign exchange controls and the closed economy allowed the manufacturer to concentrate in meeting the demand without improvements in motor quality. In fact limitations in foreign exchange availability encouraged the use of low quality laminations and windings. The motors are generally very bulky in proportion to the horsepower ratings, and the manufacturer also does not have a test facility for efficiency measurements. The study assumed that industrial motor efficiencies could be improved by 15% on the average by redesigning the motors. However, high efficiency motors are not available in Zimbabwe or Southern Africa.



4.3 Options suggested in SADC Industrial Energy Conservation Pilot Project

The SADC Industrial Energy Conservation Pilot Project was implemented under CIDA funding by a Canadian consultant with three SADC counterpart staff. The project was carried out in four SADC countries namely Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Malawi. The project tasks included training in energy auditing, building awareness, and assessment of the energy conservation potential in the region. The key criteria for selection of companies was that they had to be small to medium manufacturing plants. This gives an indication of the capacity to invest and the availability of technical expertise to implement energy efficiency projects.

The project was implemented through surveys of industry which were fully funded by CIDA. The surveys analyzed energy use in general and produced some estimates of energy conservation potentials in industry. The conservation options were categorised as no-cost, low cost and medium cost and high cost. No cost measures included improved house keeping and equipment repair. Even though repair and maintenance cost money it was assumed that these measures are included in the normal operation and maintenance costs of the plant and should be implemented anyway. Low cost and medium cost measures included retrofits such as boiler efficiency improvement equipment or instrumentation, condensate reclamation, steam pipe insulation and coordination of steam usage. The investment in low cost measures would mostly cover labour costs.

High cost measures included the installation of new plant and equipment which would add to the value of the plant such as heat exchangers, pumps, light fittings and process equipment.

The SADC project did not classify the options as negative cost or positive cost. However the criteria of simple payback (SPB) gives an indication that an investment will payback within its lifetime. The options had their simple payback calculated to indicate financial viability. Table 4.2 below shows the results of the SADC studies and the potentials for conservation in energy and financial terms. The options include reduction of thermal losses, process efficiency and lighting retrofits. Apart from establishing potential conservation options the project compared energy intensity in industry to best industry practice in other countries.



Table 4.2. Conservation options identified by the SADC Pilot Project

Typical energy conservation measure Frequency Savings Cost saved Installation SPB
GJ/Yr US$/Yrljr US$ Yr
Improved combustion efficiency

Repair steam traps

Switch off lights

Repair steam leaks

De-energize transformer

Repair compressed air leaks

Refrigeration improvements

Demand control

Fuel conversion

Power factor correction

Reclaim condensate

Insulate boilers/kilns/furnaces

Flash steam recovery

Insulate steam piping

Process/operations revision

Insulate process piping/equipment

Air curtains

Waste heat recovery

Insulated condensate piping

Indoor lighting retrofit

Outdoor lighting retrofit

9

16

42

18

1

6

1

1

6

14

17

18

6

24

29

25

6

14

12

9

17

234770

142784

15411

133667

3784

1881

1287

0

0

0

78491

36017

25329

140321

154922

6915

4158

266667

24771

4799

4984

252831

134826

132029

126840

20661

11525

6369

3455

150186

265602

94402

39961

24798

117906

239921

14677

10020

832968

18139

27056

38425

















62245

172531

62760

28608

17959

102479

212671

16723

12061

1141166

33782

59544

98744

















0.4 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.2 2.6
Total 291 1280958 2562597 2021273 0.8







4.4 Options considered in Zimbabwe Energy Efficiency Project (ZEEP)

The Zimbabwe Energy Efficiency Project was commissioned by government (Ministry of Transport and Energy) to address the issues of energy efficiency in the economy. The first phase of the project was meant to identify potential options for conservation that can lead to viable investments in energy conservation. The project was being done with a background of rising electricity tariffs and shortage of electrical energy capacity in the system. The project was funded through the International Energy Initiative (IEI) by the Rockefeller Foundation. The project is meant to continue beyond 1996 when various physical projects may be implemented as part of the National Development Programme. The major players identified for the project were the utility (ZESA), the Department of Energy in the Ministry of Transport and Energy and private consultants. Utility participation has been limited to the review of reports and sporadic participation at some of the project meetings. It has not yet been established why the utility participation is so limited. Perceived benefits from the project are generally agreed to be reduction in expenditure on investments for energy and reduced utilisation of fuels. The environmental benefits are recognised but the advantages in redirecting the saved funds to other development activities is a priority for government.

The Zimbabwe Energy Efficiency Project identified some options for energy conservation in industry. The project tasks 5 to 8 addressed the issues of device efficiency in the domestic sector. The tasks analyzed the potential for improvement in electric water heaters, refrigerators, lighting and electric motors in industry. Electric motor efficiency was aimed at identifying the potential for utilisation of high efficiency motors. The study could not find a source for high efficiency motors in the region. Instead a source for high power factor motors was identified. Electric motors were estimated to use about 53% of the electrical energy used by industry. This figure was based on information from the utility. It would however appear that electric motors are the major industrial load and could be accounting for more that 80% of electrical energy use in industry. This is because of the low coal prices which allow for high competition from coal for heating in industry. The few cases where electricity arc furnaces are used would not be useful in generalising industrial loads. The only fertiliser plant in country produces ammonium nitrate through electrolysis. The plant is a major consumer of electrical energy and the figures tend to distort the distribution of energy use in industry by device.

A review of one of the factory reports indicated significant potential savings, yet these options had not been implemented even one year after the study. The options had simple payback periods of about one year for lighting retrofits and about 15 years for other plant. Of these measures the following were recommended.



Table 4.3. Conservation options at bottling plant

Measure kWh Saved kW Saved Tonnes Steam $ Saved Cost SPB
VSD Boiler fans

Laundry Elec

Lighting

Power Factor

144300

97500

79100

-

16

30

9

-

-

-20

-

27400

29750

15500

156500

260000

167000

122600

200000

9.5

5.6

7.9

1.3







Power factor correction had the shortest payback period. Zimbabwean industry has been implementing power factor correction because the utility monitors reactive power demand and correcting power factor allows for increase in factory capacity without additional capacity from the utility. The immediate cost for power factor correction then compares very well with the connection fees charged by the utility.

As opposed to the UNEP studies which considered costs to the economy the ZEEP studies looked at the investment from the point of view of the customer. The difference is that taxes and duties were included in the ZEEP studies. Also the perception of a viable project differs between government and the private sector. The two approaches are however useful in determining the criteria for investment in conservation by individuals and by government.



4.5 Conclusion on energy conservation options

There is a significant potential for energy conservation in industry. Given the analysis carried out in the studies the economic and financial benefits of these options are easily demonstrable. Government commissioned most of these studies thereby indicating the policy makers' support for energy conservation. The department of energy itself is central to the ZEEP project and assigned a member of its staff on a full time basis to the UNEP supported greenhouse gas studies. The industrialists participated in the projects and were recipients of the factory audit reports. During the UNEP studies the industrialists responded to detailed questionnaires on production processes energy intensity of production and projected energy demand. Information was therefore flowing between the project team, industry, and government.

With the above scenario, it is clear that all the stakeholders are aware of the available efficiency optimization options and only physical project implementation is lacking. Industrialists who have refurbished their factories have done so to meet needs for quality, volume and the expected competition from foreign suppliers. Energy efficiency has seldom been given as a reason for investment. There is therefore a need to address the efficiency options in industry as tools to implementation of environment protection in Zimbabwe.

In addressing the options it is important to realise that efficiency is relative to available options. The reduction of energy use by housekeeping, refurbishment, plant replacement or management has to be designed to suit the environment within which the options are to be implemented. There is no absolute value for efficiency. An example is the use of high efficiency motors as based on international standards. The ZEEP project had difficulty in identifying the source of high efficiency motors for Zimbabwe but imported standard efficiency motors offer better performance than some locally made motors. The definition of efficiency improvement used in this study is therefore "improvement of performance to a level better than current." This allows for a variety of options covering all ranges of capital investment. This report includes all these options since the SADC studies considered no-cost, low cost, medium cost and high cost options and the UNEP studies considered large investment options in both energy and process efficiency. The following analysis will try and identify the barriers for all levels of investment whilst indicating those specific to each cost category.



5 Barriers to implementation of negative cost options in Zimbabwe

5.1 Energy-economy linkages

The Zimbabwean industry has experienced a history of economic sanctions and a closed economy. The history was due to the political environment before 1980 when the then government was not recognised by the international community. Economic sanctions were imposed to force change in the political system.

The trade barriers however forced industry to strive for self sufficiency and to accept outdated technology in their factories. A survey of industry showed that a lot of equipment in the steel, textile and pulp and paper industry dates back to the 1920's.

After 1980 the economic sanctions were lifted in recognition of the new government. The task was now to improve facilities for the underprivileged and achieve some economic equity for the groups that were victims of the 25 year UDI period. The government therefore took a path of controlling foreign exchange, prices, wages and trade in major food grains. Industry could therefore not exercise its own criteria in investment, and competition was poor. The following barriers appear as the main causes of the non-implementation of energy conservation and environmental protection options even though there maybe apparent financial gains for the industrialist.



5.2 Survey on implementation barriers

A survey was carried out as a way of confirming the barriers to implementation of negative cost environment protection options. The survey used energy efficiency studies that have been carried out recently as a reference. The interviewees were industrialists and individuals with relevant industrial experience. The questionnaire was basically a list of the perceived barriers from the point of view of the Southern Centre and others. The interviewees were asked to confirm the barriers and comment on their effectiveness. Government Officials were also interviewed to obtain their view on the sentiments expressed by industrialists. The following is a discussion of the comments made and information received during the interviews.



5.3 Energy prices and price distortions

The analysis carried out during the studies described in Section 5 indicated potential gains in energy conservation. The gains were both economic and financial thereby making the projects suitable for government and the private sector. Prices of energy however do not provide enough motivation to initiate new investment for the purpose of saving energy. An analysis carried out by ZESA showed that the cost of energy constitutes about 15% to 25% of the operating costs of the companies. This figure sounds very high but if it is considered that most of the energy intensive industry has a very high value added the cost of energy will be found to be small in comparison to the value of production. The argument is also valid for coal. On the other hand it may not be reliably accurate to assume data from ZESA to represent the true picture of the weight of energy as an input cost. With due respect for commitment by industry to conservation there can still be identified cases where the information provided to ZESA was inflated to present a favourable position in tariff design and implementation. It is preferred to refer to independent surveys such as the one by Southern Centre to verify the data. This difficulty with surveys was highlighted in discussions with the Director for Energy.

Large industrialists also indicated that minor users of energy, such as the factories with electricity as a minor cost do not have high regard for energy conservation since energy costs do not have a notable influence on their profits. The response from the less energy intensive industries is that they use very little energy and conservation would not have an impact on their processes. The energy intensive industries however indicated an awareness of the need for conservation as the market becomes competitive. An aluminium extrusion plant indicated electricity as a major cost which resulted in a reaction from the accountants who saw the need to conserve. The response from the accountants as opposed to the process engineers indicates that the tariffs are becoming felt and may be high enough to promote conservation. This is clear evidence that prices are now high enough to encourage conservation but whether they are high enough to meet the economic cost of production is a subject for further study. The initiatives by ZESA and The Ministry of Transport and Energy to move towards Long Run Marginal costing will account for the pricing of energy at economic costs.

The poor response from low energy intensity industry requires analysis once the energy prices are based on LRMC. However opportunities exist with major energy users and as the word spreads on conservation the small industries may also be captured in the new conservation culture.

Electricity prices have been designed to protect the low income consumers and the large consumers with true tariffs applied for the other tariff categories. The rationale to protect the large consumers was an apparent misconception that the large industry would fail if energy prices were high. The political environment at the time warranted protection of the major industry in a bid to retain economic activity. The environment has since changed with new government policy to promote competition. Recent efforts by the utility have been to redress the anomalous situation where the large consumers enjoyed negotiated tariffs which in most cases did not meet the cost of supply. In one case the tariff had to be increased by 55% to align it with the other consumers. These measures are bound to encourage conservation. A recent study by ZESA [Load Analysis Report] indicates that electricity metering does not include reactive power in all major installations therefore some consumers do not pay for poor power factor. The recommendation in the report is that the utility meters all major consumers with kVA meters. Nevertheless time of use tariffs need to account for the increases in production costs as the manufacturer reschedules production to benefit from lower tariffs. In discussion with some industrialists the current tariffs do not yield sufficient benefit to cover the cost of overtime labour if the production times were to be changed. It has been possible in some cases to reschedule automatic or unmanned machines to achieve savings of over Z$40 000-00 (US$5 000-00) per month as demonstrated by an aluminium processing plant. Energy pricing can therefore not be taken in isolation to the other inputs to the production process. If the tariff was to encourage time of use changes then the options would be to either increase the upper band or lower the lower band. If the off peak energy was made less expensive then there would be poor conservation during that time and the shift in production times would result in loss of revenue for the utility. If on-peak tariffs were increased then the rescheduling of production plant might create a new peak period. The increased prices may also have an impact on the industries without flexibility to reschedule such as the large metal smelters who work continuously. The utility would not benefit from prohibitive tariffs as industrialists would seek alternative sources of energy which may include resiting of new plants to countries with lower energy costs. Caution should therefore be exercised in changing the price differential between off peak and on-peak electricity prices.

The other major limitation on electricity pricing is that the load drawn during peak periods is estimated. ZESA does not have time of use metering for all consumers so much that in some cases the consumer does not see the need to shift load if the charge for load coincident with the system peak is calculated as 35% of the total consumption. If time of use metering was available then tariffs could penalise those contributing to the peak demand thereby allowing the utility to avoid use of inefficient peaking plant. ZESA is currently studying the potential of time of use metering. The advantage of fixed proportion calculation of on-peak energy demand is that it encourages reduction of total energy demand as the industrialist aims at reducing the total energy use. However the tariff required to achieve this effect is not yet achieved and even when achieved the consumer remains with limited options to reduce the energy demand.

Coal pricing is structured such that industry pays a very high transport charge. The tariff therefore limits the use of coal by low income groups. The informal sector is therefore forced to opt for firewood which in most cases is inefficient. An example is the firing of bricks where wet logs are used with the resultant losses due to the wood having to dry first before combustion. Fuel wood use has its other environmental impacts which in developing countries are more serious than the impacts of coal and other fossil fuels. This is because the loss of trees has an immediate effect on the quality of life. If coal was affordable for these groups then pricing could afford some control over the energy use in the informal sector as the sector would opt for commercial energy. Coal would yield a better quality product and once popularised the switch back to fuel wood in response to price would be limited.

Even though the coal prices are too high for the informal sector the large industry with high value added does not recognise coal as a major cost. A survey by the Southern Centre indicated that industrial boilers have an efficiency of less than 60% and it is common to find boilers operating at 50%. Even though the efficiency improvement would require mostly no cost measures, the cost of the coal does not yield enough motivation for improvement of operation procedures. Large boiler operators tend to have better practices probably due to the availability within the plant of highly qualified personnel.



5.4 Availability and accessibility of technology

Energy conservation technology is generally accessible to industry as it is available in Europe, Asia and North America. The Purchase of production technology is however dependant on the quality of product, volume of production and the capital cost of the investment. Given the history of the Zimbabwean industry as described earlier the main objective of the industry has been to provide a product without much regard for the factors of quality and volume. The market has generally been small and volumes have been generally low. The delivery system for efficient technology has therefore been limited. During the ZEEP project electric motor manufacturers could not supply data on high efficiency motors even though they supply a major portion of the international electric motor market. The technology is available in Europe and North America but the marketing system has not reached the region yet. One industrialist commented that the aim was not to supply efficient motors but to meet the demand for motors.

Lighting has generally been available due to the promotion of efficient lighting in the commercial sector. Lighting also has the added effect of visual impact which influences the buyer in getting a product which looks different. In most applications compact fluorescent lamps are not economically viable due to the limited running hours. A circular fluorescent tube however looks "different". Commerce however has the added interest to appear friendly to the environment and also to save money on the long burning hours especially in hotels and public places. Industry has traditionally been reliant on fluorescent tubes. Lighting is however not a major energy user in industry. The use of fluorescent tubes is mostly due to higher light output and lamp life. Electronic ballasts and high efficiency magnetic ballasts have not found high demand because of prices and availability only from specialist shops. Lighting retrofits requiring change of lamp fitting tend to be very expensive and in some cases would require rewiring of the installation. In such cases as replacement of 8 foot tubes with 6 foot tubes the job tends to be uneconomical for the investor. High efficiency 8 ft tubes are generally not available in the region. The distribution of ordinary 8 ft tubes is also being phased out.

Industrialists interviewed so far indicate that technology is fairly accessible but there is a limitation on the capacity to assess and analyze the options within the country. The financial analysis or economic analysis is required for decision making within the sector. The professionals who could possibly provide the service have been indicated as failing to market their businesses to encourage requests for services. This comment was made by a few industrialists and it was interesting to note that the industrialists already have faith in local professionals but required them to make a business approach for energy conservation. In one of the cases a local consultant had been asked to make a proposal which was not convincing and the industrialist confirmed that he did not sign the contract for presentation reasons. The alternative to local consultants is imported professional services. Foreign consultants tend to make short visits and are very expensive. Industry would prefer regular support for continuous conservation activity.

Processes can now be monitored by control devices which optimise production time and energy use. Such technology is marketed by large manufacturers who are well represented in the region. The application of the technology is limited to modern equipment where the necessary hook-ups can be made. An example is the electronic control of the paper manufacturing process. Moisture control reduces energy demand significantly. However there has to be provision for the installation of sensors and the control of the rollers should be capable of automation. In some cases the factory would need rearrangement to achieve efficient use of energy.

During a preliminary audit at a factory it was found that the boiler was not sufficiently lagged. The reason given was that the parent company did not accept asbestos as an insulating material and specified calcium silicate instead. Due to the availability of asbestos in Zimbabwe suppliers of insulating material do not handle calcium silicate. This is an example where foreign standards are imposed on a local company when the technology is not available.



5.5 Lack of trained manpower for energy conservation

There are very few energy efficiency related consultancy organizations in Zimbabwe. A recent call by the Environment Forum of Zimbabwe for companies to offer their services in cleaner production found only 20 qualifying respondents. Efforts of UNIDO's Cleaner Production Centre to enlist companies which promote industrial energy efficiency met limited success as potential participants in the programme are traditional engineering consultants. Thus, at present, only a few consultants are available to support energy efficiency programmes in Zimbabwe.



5.6 Awareness about benefits

Awareness of the benefits of energy conservation is quite high amongst industrialists in Zimbabwe. The recent difficulties with electrical energy supply helped in raising awareness especially in the conservation of electrical energy. The Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries is a major player in the environmental protection arena in Zimbabwe. The CZI has an Environment Committee which is active in environment protection and cleaner production practices. An indicator of high awareness is the publication of a mission statement by the CZI which includes environment protection and the inclusion of environment protection statements in the annual reports of various major industrialists. The awareness is however not adequately supported by knowledge of the basic technology options for improvement of energy optimisation. If it is accepted that energy efficiency is only relative to the existing situation with any option to reduce energy use being accepted as an efficiency option then energy efficiency does not necessarily have to await major investment. The value of no cost and low cost measures is not well realised. Given the provision of a free service in energy audits by SADC and the presentation of documented options for conservation of energy one could only assume that the value of the report is not understood if the options are still outstanding two years after the study. A supporting factor to this assertion is that Zimbabwe as a young economy has a large proportion of small enterprises where the operator is least concerned about energy conservation. The technical capacity to analyze energy use and evaluate the financial benefits is often missing in such organisations.

At a national level the government has been implementing several projects to assess options for energy conservation. The technical support has often been from abroad even though the country has a large component of consulting engineers and scientists. In most of these projects training was included which on closer analysis only means awareness building. The success of the efforts has been limited by the lack of sustenance in the effort and the absence of practical demonstration projects aimed at showing examples of successes with energy conservation. The government is implementing a project termed the Zimbabwe Energy Efficiency Project (ZEEP) which is expected to lead into demonstration projects after 1996. The project has had difficulties in achieving the initial tasks of deriving baseline assessment tools. The reasons are not clear but it is apparent that the language of the project (economic analysis and assessment of benefits) is not clearly understood. The methodology has sometimes not been clear and results of analysis have been slow in coming. If the project was driven by the quest for well understood benefits then its success would have been better.

Similar to technical capacity, awareness is most lacking in small enterprises. Large companies normally have a network of trade partners and equipment suppliers who raise awareness in opportunities for conservation. As the economy opens up under current reforms there is bound to be an increased interest in cost cutting measures to enable local industry to compete on the international market. This refinement of costs and prices will need thorough knowledge of the cost of production and technological options. Discussions with one industrialist indicated that local industry (large or small) is not knowledgeable of the cost structure of their production processes. Even though cost centres may be known the itemised input costs for each product are not known and therefore it is difficult for industry to determine the possible changes that need to be made to reduce production costs. Mere knowledge of the cost structure would prompt attention for the major items since in most cases the change would be rearrangement of plant or change in production timing or such other measure as may not require major investment.



5.7 Protection to industry

The Zimbabwean economy has not been very competitive in the past. The economy was virtually closed due to exchange controls and import restrictions. The local industry has been limited in capacity and ability. In general the environment did not encourage new industry. The result was a market that is not capable of discriminating against poor products and product pricing. When this question was posed to industry there were varied responses which were highly dependent on the size of the factory. Export directed industry has always had competition from external manufacturers. There has therefore been limited failure in their market.

In developed countries the promotion of energy efficiency leads onto a demand by the market for the efficient devices. Once the demand exists the suppliers tend to produce and distribute the devices.

The market in Zimbabwe suffered from the years of a closed economy and the buyer is beginning to learn the need to specify and select the best value for money when procuring goods and services. The supplier on the other hand is beginning to learn the skills of trading in a competitive market. The economy is not completely open because there are still some controls on foreign exchange. Competition between suppliers is therefore not yet effective.

The major factor in Zimbabwe is a captive market for a few major manufacturers who literally determine terms and trends in product evolution. An example is the production of electric motors where other manufacturers have stopped production thereby allowing the single manufacturer to control the market for electric motors under 180 kW. The electric motor market is dominated by four major companies. The local manufacturer uses a specification supplied by one of the manufacturers who has a joint factory in South Africa with the third manufacturer. The fourth supplier operates from a European factory. It is therefore apparent that the electric motor trade is dominated by two large players. The competition is therefore limited.

Apart from devices, the supply of energy resources is also dominated by the three major suppliers of electricity, coal and liquid fuels. These forms of energy are virtually independent with very little potential for energy switching. Market forces are therefore absent when it comes to the energy trade. Without competition the pricing, delivery systems and management do not promote energy efficiency. An example is the stock piling of coal fines which could be used as fuel for various economic activities and the pricing of these as coal when the cost is recovered in the sale of the primary coal products. Obviously the consumer opts for primary coal with the resultant environmental damage associated with coal mining.

It is necessary that the market learns the benefits of energy conservation and demands the efficient devices. Recently a supplier of refrigeration equipment included energy use data in the advertisement for his equipment. It would seem logical that the competition would advertise their energy consumption figures as well if lower. The response seems lacking indicating that energy efficiency is not yet a selling point for device manufacturers. There is also what may be termed a cultural overhead or closed economy inertia amongst the potential customers for electrical or other energy consuming devices. Due to the legacy of past economic controls, Zimbabweans are interested mainly in price and the availability of spares or backup service for imported devices which would offer improved energy use. The economic reforms now in place allow for easy importation of spares and products and most devices such as refrigerators and water heaters do have local maintenance support. The notion that the device will not be repairable once broken arises from the days when import restrictions limited the goods that could be brought into the country. Apparently this notion exists both with manufacturers and consumers. Discussions with most local manufacturers indicated unavailability of spares as a reason for not using imported items. For the manufacturer it maybe a matter of maintaining the inertia as a way of maintaining the market.



5.8 Availability of investment capital

Industrialists have been struggling to improve performance in the light of the potential competition which will arise from the current economic reforms. During recent industrial surveys, the Southern Centre established that a large number of factories have either refurbished or replaced plant and more have plans to replace equipment. A textile manufacturer had replaced the whole factory in a bid to improve quality and competitiveness. All these measures are not directed at environment protection or energy conservation but at reducing operating costs in general.

Given the efforts in plant replacement and the efforts by government to control inflation by reducing capital availability it becomes apparent that there is a major competition for capital and energy efficiency alone is not a strong contender. The SADC study and the recent ZEEP studies presented reports which indicated options for energy conservation with positive financial benefits. Some of the companies are expanding their factories to include production of goods that were once imported and some of them are expanding to meet increased demand. The conservation options therefore await their turn in the queue for investment capital. The time might therefore be too early to assess the response of private industry to conservation issues given the activities required for immediate survival.

A major factor influencing investment in efficiency is the exchange rate fluctuations. The Zimbabwe dollar has been losing against major world currencies since 1980. The cost of imported technology has therefore been going up. Compounded by the shortage of foreign currencies the industrialist has had to make do with available equipment for survival. The following graph shows the exchange rate fluctuations since 1985.

The graph shows major devaluations in 1991 and 1993. These were implemented as part of the economic reforms in a bid to draw the currency closer to being convertible. Even though exchange control regulations have been relaxed, the cost of hard currencies limits the demand such that supply remains sufficient to meet the demand. During 1994 the exchange rate has been fairly stable at Z$8/US$.

A recent study [GHG Abatement Costing Studies, Phase 3 - Southern Centre and Risų] showed that about 40.3% of investment capital for projects approved in 1993 was in hard currencies. Given the graph below in exchange rate fluctuations the capital requirement would be increasing by about 25% per year through exchange losses. Given interest rates of 25% to 40% the cost of new investment was virtually impossible . Even though the exchange rates have now stabilised the interest rates are still high and investors would not consider efficiency as an option.

The survey of industry yielded a concern over availability of capital. The interest rates are very high and investors are not keen on putting their resources into low priority options. There have been limited comments on availability of capital with most interviewees just indicating it as a barrier. The lack of comments may be due to industry having accepted high interest rates as a given in the economy and investors having to live with it. One industrialist even said that capital could always be borrowed. If one considers the value added for each production process the limitation on capital may be found to be linked to the possible rate of return in each industry.



5.9 Lack of financial incentives to equipment manufacturers

Discussions with one industrialist who manufactures solar energy devices indicated that efficient devices or any other conservation devices attract duties and taxes unlike equipment for the utility which can get exemption from duty. Import tax on imported goods constitutes of customs duty, surtax and sales tax for goods sold in the retail market. The government has the provision for declaring those investments that are of a national interest where taxes and duties would increase the initial cost of the investment tax free. An example would be the purchase of a power plant by the utility. If such status was granted to materials for production of solar water heaters or efficient devices to the extent that they reduce the potential expenditure in energy production devices then energy efficiency would offer better competition to the supply market. This argument applies to all energy supply systems including coal and liquid fuels. Recent changes in the taxation system allows for duty free imports of capital goods. This does not apply to operation and maintenance supplies. Also goods manufactured locally do not necessarily qualify for reduction of duty on the components for the production process. The result has been poor performance for local suppliers when it comes to supply of capital equipment. It is therefore clear that the taxation system needs to be reviewed to avoid disadvantaging local manufacturers when it comes to the supply of energy conservation technologies. It is however true that duties and taxes have little impact on access to imported capital goods.



5.10 Inadequacies in legislation

Environment protection encompasses all sectors of the economy. The environment protection legislation in Zimbabwe is therefore fragmented with the hope that duties can be shared as well. The difficulty is that the implementation of the legislation is not coordinated with the result that some agencies actually contradict each other. The Mining Act has often been quoted as contradictory to the other environment protection legislation. At the National Response Conference to the Rio Earth Summit it was acknowledged that legislation needed to be coordinated so that it becomes complementary. It was also cited that complementary legislation will improve optimisation of resource use. Since environmental protection is multisectoral the implementation of protection legislation is of necessity by various agencies. An example is energy conservation being a responsibility of the Ministry of Transport and Energy through the Department of Energy which in turn is responsible for the liquid fuels supplying agencies, coal supply, electricity and renewable energy. The protection of water and air are under the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare because of the envisaged need of preventing pollution related health problems. The interaction of the two government ministries needs coordination as it relates to supply of energy for economic development and prevention of pollution. The table below shows some of the legislative responsibilities in environmental protection in Zimbabwe.

Industrialists who have been interviewed so far indicated that the legislation was ineffective or absent. It was mentioned in one case that the regulations on emission controls could be effective if enforced but the local authority responsible to enforce the regulations never got to use the enforcement measures available to it. There is provision for stopping production or imposing fines if emission levels were high. The industrialist said that all he ever got were warnings. The legislation needs updating but implementation has to be improved.



Table 5.1. Current environmental protection legislation in Zimbabwe

Responsibility Institution Legislation
Forests and Wildlife Ministry of Environment and Tourism Natural Resources Act

Forest Act

Parks and Wild Life Act

Bees Act

Trapping of Animals Control Act

Noxious weeds Act

Plant, pests and dieses Act

Communal land forest produce Act

Emissions Ministry of Health

Ministry of Local Government

- Urban Councils

Atmospheric pollution prevention Act

Hazardous substances and articles Act

Mines Ministry of Mines Mines and Minerals Act
Water Pollution Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources Water Act
Physical Planning Ministry of Local Government Regional Town and Country Planning Act

Urban Councils Act

District Councils Act

Communal lands Act

National Monuments National museums and monuments Act





Source: Ministry of Environment



A global perspective on barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency options in developing countries is given in Annex VII of this report. Annex VIII gives further analysis of the case for Zimbabwe.

6 Proposed implementation strategies

6.1 Overview of implementation measures

Analysis of barriers to implementation of energy conservation measures in industry sector bring to the fore the necessity of delineation and implementation of measures in the area of information dissemination and imparting training, provision of financial and economic incentives, and establishing appropriate institutional structure in Zimbabwe. Overview of these measures is presented in Table 6.1.



Table 6.1. Overview of implementation measures for energy conservation

Area of impact Implementation measure
Information and training Financial and economic Institutional and legal
Operational performance Plant audits

Energy management courses

Consultancy grants or subsidies Energy management centres

Engineering Consultancy Network

Investment in energy conservation and end-use equipment Product information

Specialized courses

National databases

Investment subsidies

Tariff exemptions

Market pricing of energy

Performance standards

DSM oriented utilities

Demonstration projects

Process selection System cost analysis

Technology ranking

Internalization of environmental management costs EIA of technologies







6.2 Policy options for promotion of electricity end-use efficiency

Improvements in the efficiency of energy use are probably the most important single means to tackle the growing problems of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the dominance of coal in energy use, achievement of energy efficiency gains involving macroeconomic structural change, industrial modernization, and specific technical improvements take on added urgency as key components of the country's environmental management strategy.

The policy options to promote electricity end-use efficiency include:

Setting-up National Energy Efficiency Centre (NEEC) to promote electricity end-use conservation

Strengthening energy conservation initiatives

Adoption of appropriate energy conservation laws and regulations

Bridging the gap between private investment and public benefits through alternative financial arrangements

Promote transfer of energy efficient technology and its use in Zimbabwe



6.3 Setting-up National Energy Efficiency Centre (NEEC) to promote electricity end-use conservation

The Integrated Energy Resource Planning (IERP) process which has great relevance to Zimbabwe cannot be practised through the medium of ZESA. Innovative Demand Side Management (DSM) options other than conventional load management strategies require utilities to work closely with energy consumers. Unless inter-related institutional, regulatory, and financial reforms are implemented to improve power sector performance in Zimbabwe, any move to DSM practice is unlikely to meet with success.

A survey of non-U.S. industrialized countries shows that to promote energy efficiency improvements most governments deemed it necessary to develop a National Energy Conservation Program and to create and fund Energy Efficiency Centers.

The experience of these countries and a few developing countries indicate that institutional arrangements should be tailored to meet the country's own specific needs. A pre-requisite to the success of such a Centre is:

Commitment to energy conservation from the highest political level

An energy pricing structure that ensures the correct energy efficiency signals are being sent to the user.

An unambiguous system for determination of policy and implementation

The provision of a National Energy Program having clearly stated objectives

The scope of the centre would comprise:

# Information dissemination and technical assistance

develop a National Energy Database by collecting and analyzing data on energy supply, demand and information on prices

identify barriers to improving energy efficiency and propose appropriate incentives and other measures to overcome them. These would include recommendations for assistance with capital investment, taxes, duties and other financial incentives

review laws and regulations that have an impact on energy consumption and propose modifications and formulate suitable policies and actions

suggest introduction of standards and labels and setting of consumption targets

provide planning assistance to government agencies

organise public information and promotional campaigns on an on-going basis

organise sector specific promotional campaigns for the main energy consuming sectors (industry, transport, agriculture, commercial and government buildings). Also, provide technical assistance in the field of energy efficiency to these sectors

promote or conduct energy audits in enterprises and provide recommendations to improve energy efficiency and fuel substitution

monitor progress made in energy conservation and fuel substitution and initiate follow-up actions where needed;

organise training for energy managers and equipment operators; and

implement multilateral and bilateral aided energy efficiency projects.

# Technology intermediation

Identify technology needs or opportunities in the country and put outside business firms that use or offer up-to-date, efficient technologies in touch with companies that need technology assistance

Provide an intermediation function for energy service companies

# Financial intermediation

Receive, appraise, and bundle labour intensive, low-capital- requirement, efficiency, conservation, and alternative fuels projects for potential World Bank, commercial bank, and other donor funding.



6.4 Strengthening energy conservation initiatives

Government and utilities in industrialized countries have taken many initiatives to encourage more efficient usage of electricity. In Zimbabwe SADC has conducted some energy conservation activities for select industries. There is need to strengthen such energy conservation initiatives, extend their coverage and improve coordination between the various agencies involved. In general, these activities and programs are intended to overcome the technical, economic, and institutional barriers.

The different actions that could be taken comprise:

# Information collection, collation and dissemination

Lack of information about potential savings, the cost of specific efficiency improvements, and the availability of special energy management services or simply the lack of adequately trained technicians are all barriers to improved electricity end-use efficiency. They are also barriers to other forms of energy conservation and, as a result, have long been the focus of considerable activity by both governments and energy efficiency institutions.

The ultimate objective of energy conservation information programs is to assist users in making choices about improving energy efficiency which are in their own economic self-interest. Insufficient or unreliable information appears to be a major barrier to improving end-use efficiency, especially in residences and smaller commercial and industrial firms.

Providing general energy conservation information through brochures and advertisements can raise public awareness, but may not have much impact on actual consumer behaviour. Information and educational programs tend to be most effective when they provide consumers with simple and specific steps to take along with estimates of how much energy and money will be saved. General appeals to the public to save energy are usually less effective.

# Technical information dissemination and technology demonstration

A step beyond general information campaigns is the provision of technical information on specific measures to improve energy efficiency. Such information is usually most effective if it is based on the actual costs and savings experienced by users similar to the intended recipient.

Demonstrations are one way of obtaining such information on new technologies which have not been applied previously.

Information could be disseminated through technical guides, training programs, seminars, or demonstrations for particular industries, businesses, building types, or end-use technologies.

# Energy audits and management services

Energy audits for residences, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities are very useful for providing owners with information on what measures they can take to conserve electricity and other forms of energy, along with the anticipated cost, savings, and payback. This type of educational effort works best when accompanied by financing or incentive programs in order to increase the likelihood that owners will follow up on the audit recommendations.

Although energy audits are a vital first step towards improved efficiency, their initial cost - as well as the difficulty of identifying and arranging for a skilled auditor is often a significant barrier to conservation efforts. Governments could invest in industrial energy audit studies as an alternative to power sector investments for additional production capacity. Energy audits would assist in loss reduction which is complementary to the current ESAP.

In addition to technical information about the benefits and costs of conservation measures, most users ultimately require additional assistance to finance, install, operate or maintain energy efficiency systems. Such services can be provided by private businesses, such as banks, equipment suppliers, and engineering or construction firms. The Government can through ZESA play a significant role in identifying, evaluating or arranging for energy audit services. It would be best to implement such a strategy through audit firms that ZESA could assist in setting up as ZESA would not need to create new capacity where it already exists elsewhere in the economy. ZESA could then incorporate the expected benefits as an element in the system development plan.

Energy policy-makers and those responsible for financing can encourage energy efficiency programmes by making an energy audit a pre-condition for businesses and industries to receive a loan. This is a stringent requirement which can cripple some small industries. It can play a vital role in streamlining investment at larger plants especially in the case of new investment. Most industry in Zimbabwe is battling with old equipment and would certainly fail efficiency criteria for loans. It is not denied that a mere requirement for an audit could be financed through the loan and could encourage efficiency. Low efficiency could however not be used as a precondition for a loan.

# Education and training

The comparative newness of many of the techniques used to improve end-use efficiency (and to evaluate possible efficiency measures) may result in a shortage of skilled technicians - both in private companies which offer energy services, as well as in companies that are major users of energy. To overcome such skills shortages, government and ZESA can support education and training programmes ranging from specialized programmes for engineering studies to short-term training workshops for industrial plant managers. Because of the indirect effects of such efforts, it is virtually impossible to assess their cost effectiveness, but they certainly contribute substantially to the ability of energy users to obtain the technical services necessary for effective efficiency programmes.

There is no doubt that training for energy conservation managers in private business and industry is another potentially useful activity . Training is also needed for professional energy auditors, inspectors enforcing efficiency regulations, and for those providing technical assistance.

# Research, development and demonstration

The Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) of new, more energy-efficient electric technologies or methods is another means by which end-use efficiency improvements can be accelerated. There are many different areas that might benefit from additional RD&D support including electric motors, compressors, new insulation materials, energy storage, energy management systems, etc. While overseas private manufacturers and suppliers conduct a wide range of research, this capacity is limited in Zimbabwe. Efforts are usually restricted to product-oriented and fairly short-term quality control and marketing activities. In addition, in Zimbabwe most of the manufacturers are so small that they do not have the resources to support extensive R&D efforts. There is a limitation on public research institutes which in Europe benefit the industry. Some support has been provided in agriculture and related industry but this has been in terms of crop and animal science. The Government of Zimbabwe is investing in a Scientific Industrial Research and Development Centre (SIRDC), which is hoped to be able to grant the much needed support in the energy, biotechnology, materials, electronics and computing science subsectors.

For these and other reasons, Government should sponsor RD&D activities directed at improving electricity end-use efficiency. Areas for RD&D include heat pumps, lighting, building controls, improved design and controls for motor drive systems, new magnetic materials and superconductivity.

The creative approaches for promoting RD&D efforts could involve holding competition asking manufacturers to submit bids for the most efficient appliances/equipments assuring large orders from government/public sectors. The SIRDC could conduct such a competition as part of its annual or biannual activities.

While many RD&D efforts will involve the organized sector, with the intention of assisting with RD&D needed to produce equipment for the first time in the country, similar efforts should also be undertaken to assist small-scale industries to improve the efficiency of their equipment. It has been observed in many countries that the efficiency of equipment in the small-scale sector often lags equipment efficiency in the organised sector. By assisting small-scale producers to produce more efficient equipment, they will be better able to compete with the organised sector over the long-term. Assistance can include training programs, technical publications and software, and customized technical assistance provided by industry experts.



6.5 Adoption of appropriate energy conservation laws and regulations

Efficiency regulations can be used to avoid the uncertainties inherent in a less-regulated market place. If a decision is taken to postpone augmenting power generation capacity based on expected end-use efficiency improvements, then it is desirable to ensure that these improvements are made in response to efficiency regulations rather than hoping they will occur in response to price signals and/or financial incentives.

Regulation should, wherever possible, employ economic incentives to achieve its goals. Promoting end use efficiency among the large number of dispersed commercial building and small-scale consumer groups through building codes and upstream standards for manufacturing would be preferred approach for Zimbabwe. Such programs usually have a relatively small investment component but require a large and sustained technical assistance effort over the long term. For effective implementation of such regulations laboratories will be required to measure standards; producers, consumers and governments will have to agree on acceptable standards; and the institutional mechanisms will have to be strong enough to support the enforcement of those standards. Both CZI and SAZ will have to play an active role in development and implementation of standards.

The regulations/laws could cover:

Government support for RD & D activities, energy audit and training programs

Introduction and implementation of appliance efficiency labelling schemes

Incentives to electrical equipment manufacturers to increase the efficiency of their products

Mandatory building codes

Restrictions on the use of air conditioners, elevators and outdoor lighting

Financial incentives, and tax incentives for industry

Subsidized loan programs for conservation investments

Higher building standards for the building fabric and heating equipment installations

Improving transport fuel economy and energy performance labelling of equipment

Accelerating the use of co-generation and in particular reducing environmental pollution

Use of minimum life cycle cost as the basis for selecting electricity-consuming equipment by the public sector

Standards prohibiting the sale of certain types of inefficient products



6.6 Bridging the gap between private investment and public benefits through alternative financial arrangements

Currently, the capital costs of generation equipment are paid by ZESA and the capital costs of enduse equipment are paid by the end-user. The high effective discount rate of the enduser as well as the separation between utility and user (or for leased equipment, the separation between owner and user) leads to much lower levels of investment in end-use equipment efficiency than is justified on the basis of either total system capital costs or life cycle operating costs. Alternative financial arrangements to redress this "disconnect" might range from the enduser choosing equipment according to the total life cycle cost and paying this cost in monthly instalments on the utility bill; to the enduser paying a front-end deposit or posting a bond to the utility to cover the life cycle operating costs of the equipment, against which the utility would charge the capital cost of the equipment on the monthly electricity bills. Either of these approaches would force the enduser to directly face the total systemwide life cycle costs of the equipment when purchasing it.



6.7 Promoting the transfer of energy efficient technology

Many of the efficiency options with the highest savings potential involve technologies which are routinely employed in industrialized countries, but are not yet employed in developing countries such as Zimbabwe. Examples of these include compact fluorescent lamps, improved efficiency refrigerators, air conditioners, evaporative coolers and high efficiency motors. Key components of a strategy to achieve technology transfer would be:

research, development and demonstration projects to adapt foreign technologies to suit socio-economic and cultural environment

technical assistance, and selective financial assistance to manufacturers to encourage them to produce products incorporating improved technologies

selective reductions in import duties, both on equipment needed to produce products domestically, and on limited quantities of products to encourage adoption of the technology and establish a market

Although the basic technologies remain the same, other factors - raw materials, capital, labour, technical and managerial manpower, political, trade regimes etc. - vary dramatically between industrialized countries and Zimbabwe. These cases range from informal rural cottage industries to subsidiaries of multinationals that have access to the best technologies available. This wide range of conditions and capabilities requires a similarly wide range of policies in order to respond appropriately. Government organizations and utilities are logical sponsors of R&D on more efficient products, with the work carried out by a private company, university, research laboratory, or some combination such as SIRDC.



6.8 Policy options for minimizing environmental impacts of energy related activities

6.8.1 Inter-policy co-ordination

Environment is viewed as a stand-alone sector in Zimbabwe and the responsibility for environmental management rests with authorities that have little or no control over destruction caused by environmentally unsound policies in various socio-economic sectors such as agriculture, industry etc.

An ideal way to minimize interpolicy conflicts is through a shift from population based socio-economic planning process to regional carrying capacity based planning process. In India, such studies are in progress under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment and Forests in four critical regions of the country. Such studies will ensure minimal inter-policy conflicts in charting resource-based planning in Zimbabwe.

6.8.2 Capacity building for technology assessment

Given the complexities and an enormous variety of industrial processes and the variance in local conditions, no single technology can be universally optimal in any sector. It will always be necessary to view available technologies as a starting point and to possess indigenous capability to critically review and adapt, if feasible, what is available. There is thus a need to enhance basic capability in engineering in Zimbabwe, both for assessing energy efficient production technologies and environmental protection technologies.

6.8.3 Mandatory environmental impact and risk assessment

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) of developmental activities is the accepted tool for internalizing environmental concerns in the overall process of decision making. Environmental impact assessment has sustainable development as its primary objective. It is imperative that the emphasis should be not just on improving skills and methodologies but also on the involvement of the public for whose good the development project is conceived. The Ministry of Environment and Tourism introduced EIA Policy in July 1994 for project level, voluntary, EIA.

It is now necessary that steps are taken to ensure the following:

Development of an adequate organisational structure to internalise environmental concerns in project planning.

The creation of adequate multi-disciplinary professional groups in the Ministry of Environment to make objective assessment.

The creation of multi-disciplinary professional groups to integrate the preparation of impact assessment and Environmental Management Plans as integral component of the development project.

Formulation of guidelines for the licensing agencies to assess the capability of prospective entrepreneurs to undertake major operations in a systematic and scientific manner.

The creation of a viable Monitoring Network to ensure that the Environmental Management Plans are effectively implemented.

Development of skilled and professional managers.

The creation of a cadre of professional Environmental Managers in the country for the preparation and implementation of Environmental Management Plans.

The development of methodologies specific to the local situation and problems.

The development of norms for the quantification of the environmental costs and benefits.

The development of professional groups and centres of excellence, dedicated to environmental management problems, in the universities and institution of higher learning.

Introduction of a system of public hearings, at an appropriate time, at least in the case of complex projects.

Creation of reliable baseline environmental data to facilitate impact assessment by adopting basin approach.

Undertaking carrying capacity studies for

Ecologically sensitive areas

Areas with a concentration of industries and mining operations

Areas already critically degraded

Areas considered to be rich in mineral resource.



7 Role of multi-lateral and bi-lateral institutions/agencies in technology transfer and diffusion

7.1 Genesis

Zimbabwe will depend on industrialized countries for importing efficient coal combustion technologies, retrofitting technologies for existing industrial units, energy-efficient production technologies for new industries and technologies for biomass derived fuels. Bilateral and multilateral agencies will have to play important roles in technology transfer in terms which would be in favour of Zimbabwe.

7.2 Techno-economic options to minimize energy related

environmental impacts

7.2.1 Power plant technology options

Combustion technologies

Combustion technologies can be classified broadly into the following two categories:

Conventional coal combustion technologies

Advanced coal combustion technologies

The conventional technologies are based on grate firing and pulverized fuel combustion systems while advanced coal-fired plants fall into the following five main categories:

Technologies employing fluidised bed combustion in conjunction with steam turbine generators

Technologies employing fluidised bed combustion in conjunction with gas turbine generators and waste heat boilers and steam turbines

Technologies based on coal gasification processes, that convert coal into gas which can then be used as a fuel in a "conventional" combined cycle plant

Technologies based on a combination of above technologies, such as topping cycle process

Integrated chemical and power plant

The overall thermal efficiencies of these advanced coal technologies are equal to or better than the existing pulverized coal plants and could reduce emission of SOX, NOX and particulates.

The use of clean coal technologies could be promoted through internalization of GHG emission as a criterion in evaluating new to coal combustion units.

7.2.2 End-use technology options in industry

Energy efficiency improvements options

These involve use of efficient equipment and improved operating procedures and production processes for reducing energy intensity, which is defined as energy use per unit of production. The major options include:

Improvement of efficiency of electric motor drive systems

Better house-keeping

Retrofits of existing plants

Use of state-of-the-art processes in new plants

Use of low temperature waste heat for preheating

Use of high temperature waste heat for co-generation

The most common types of motor drive systems in industry include pumps, fans, compressors, conveyers, machine tools, and various rollers, crushers, and other direct-drive systems. Motor driven pumps, fans, and other system components are usually deliberately designed to be oversized to have excess capacity. Many systems need variable outputs. Space heating and cooling, manufacturing, municipal water pumping, and most other motor drive loads vary with time of day, the season. Such variations can be very large. Traditionally, throttling valves or vanes have been the principal means by which flow is controlled. This is, however, an extremely inefficient means of limiting flow. The direct and indirect energy losses due to such control strategies include part load operations, poor power factor, throttling losses, excess duct or pipe friction, and pump or fan operation off the design point. Industrial and commercial pumps, fans and compressors, have average loss of 20-25 % due to throttling or other inefficient control strategies. Technology options available to industry are use of variable speed drives and high efficiency motors.

Most of the industrial energy use is in steel, cement, chemicals (especially fertilizers) and paper manufacturing units. Total energy used to produce these materials will increase rapidly in the near future. Hence it is desirable that the manufacturing process is carefully selected so as to avail benefits of the state-of- the-art technologies. This is illustrated through comparison of energy intensity of manufacturing processes in Zimbabwe and developed countries in Table 7.1.

Table 7.1. Energy intensity of industrial production in Zimbabwe

Energy intensity in selected industries

- Zimbabwe

TOE/unit Typical world intensity

- Minimum

Typical world intensity

- Maximum

Textiles

Leather

Personal care products

Brewery

Edible oils

Metal refinery

Food canning

Timber

Tobacco processing

1.833/tonne

0.088/tonne

0.073/tonne

0.009/HL

0.264/tonne

0.265/tonne

0.230/tonne

0.239/m3

0.163 /tonne

0.552

0.011

0.007

0.003

0.108

0.085

0.058

0.069

0.051

0.8096

-

0.0138

0.0087

-

-

0.1288

-

-





Source: SADCC industrial Energy Conservation Pilot Project, paper presented at Seminar on Energy Conservation in Zimbabwe: Issues and Options, 10-11 September, 1990



Thermal electric production has a relatively low thermal efficiency in which approximately two-thirds of the heat content of fuels is rejected to the environment. Cogeneration facilities permit the utilization of as much as 80 percent of the heat content of the fuels. In USA, many small scale co-generation facilities have been developed in industrial sector. A variety of technologies are now available to improve the overall efficiency of cogeneration such as replacement of conventional steam turbines with recovery of a portion of the waste heat, with higher efficiency and less costly gas-turbine cogeneration systems, and combined cycle systems that use some of the heat from the gas turbine to run a lower temperature steam turbine as well as provide process steam.

7.2.3 Fuel switching

Fuel switching can lead to reduction in air pollutant emissions but implementation depends on relative price. Switching fuels can be between different fuel types or between fuels and electricity. The first option is to switch from high carbon fuels to fuels with lower carbon content (e.g., coal to natural gas). Switching to electrical energy is advantageous if the power is derived from sources such as hydro, solar, biomass, or nuclear, which are themselves not net producers of harmful emissions.

7.2.4 Recycling of materials

The energy required to deliver industrial goods and services can often be lessened by using existing material more effectively or by changing the types of materials used. Significant amounts of energy can be saved by recycling steel, aluminium, glass, paper, and other materials.

Even greater savings may be possible if, rather than melting down and recasting the material, the material can be used in exactly the same form as before - for example, if glass bottles are of standard size and shape and can simply be washed out and reused.

Table 7.2. Energy intensity of primary and recycled materials

Material Primary

GJ/mt

Recycled

GJ/met

Savings

(percent)

Aluminium

Glass

Paper

Newsprint

Printing paper

Tissue paper

Solvents

Steel

242-277

17.8

51.6

78.8

79.7

27.9

18.1

9.9-18.7

12.3

40.4

50.5

34.3

4.7

7.6

92-96

31

22

36

57

83

58





Source: US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Facing American's Trash : What Next For Municipal Solid Waste? OTA-424 (Washington, DC : US Government Printing Office), October 1989; Energetics, Inc. Industry Profiles : Waste Utilization, US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, DE-ACO1-87CE40762, Dec. 1990



Major issues associated with the potential for achieving recycling are:

creation of markets for postconsumer-recycled material in the manufacturing of high quality products

mechanism for reliable and clean collection of selected postconsumer and industrial waste materials

regulatory changes to allow currently defined as "waste" streams to be used as feedstocks, both within a single industry and between industries

7.2.5 Use of biomass-derived fuels and feedstocks

Biomass offers an opportunity for reducing emissions because it has the potential to supply process energy, feedstock for chemicals, and transportation fuels on a neutral basis. The major technological options are:

development/demonstration of technologies for improved conversion of biomass, especially for wood derived cellulose and hemicellulose, to ethanol and other products

development/demonstration of technologies for improved anaerobic digestion of farm and municipal wastes to produce methane

selection of species for afforestation which provide high yields of dry biomass and have low energy requirements during processing

7.3 Technology transfer

There are some basic principles to be followed in technology transfer viz.

Technology to be transferred should be appropriate to conditions in the recipient country. In some cases, this would mean that the latest and most advanced versions should be provided; in others, simpler or more labour intensive versions would suit more

Licensor should be obliged and capable of providing the needed training to key personnel in the recipient country

The licensed technology should utilise, as much as possible,local resources, including raw materials, labour and supervisory personnel

The activity should make a real-time contribution to the economy of the recipient country that is greater than mere import substitution

Various modes of technology transfer are licensing, contractual use of products and processes by corporations in other countries, and transfer of technology to subsidiaries and joint ventures. These mechanisms are more effective if the initial contracts provide for maximum technical assistance and practical training implying heavy involvement of foreign technical experts, managers and other specialists in the early stages of the project.

International conventions also provide a useful means of encouraging the transfer of technology. For example, Article 3 of the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution provides for the contracting parties to facilitate the exchange of technology to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by exchanging existing technology and information, and promoting technical assistance and industrial co-operation.

Technology for products and processes can be transferred through the governmental purchase of property rights, or perhaps compulsorily transferred where the technology was developed with the public funds. Another unilateral measure that governments can take is to reorganise the academic system in tune with the requirements of advanced agricultural, industrial, energy, mining, health and human settlement sectors.

Technology is best transferred through a commercial transaction between enterprises, which is of mutual benefit to both parties. Multinational companies could play a special role in accelerating technology transfer, as they are the most effective channel for such transfer, and for building a trained manpower pool and infrastructure.



7.4 Regional and international cooperation

It is recognized that the technology transfer from developed countries in manufacturing sector will continue to take place in the foreseeable future. While CZI could facilitate the transfer mechanisms that are in favour of Zimbabwe, equally, if not more, important is to assess the true potential of natural resources, environmentally-sound conversion mechanisms, and labour intensive devices to resolve poverty, unemployment and environmental problems prevailing in Zimbabwe.



7.5 Financing of strategic energy conservation

While the energy saving advantages of energy efficient technologies are usually recognized, the common perception is that their widespread adoption will not occur because of their high initial cost.

The experiences with government and utility financing suggest that conservation financing is more likely to be successful if funds are made available at attractive terms for the private sector. Of course, financing involving interest subsidies should be subject to rigorous cost-effectiveness tests. Also, participation should be made as convenient as possible, and it may be necessary to market loans to eligible businesses or individuals. Finally, financing is best received if it is complemented by information, technical assistance, energy prices that encourage conservation.

The government could provide economic incentives for the purchase of more efficient products by lowering taxes on very efficient models. Likewise, sales taxes on less efficient, high-powered products could be increased to maintain or increase government revenue. Such taxes can be best justified in situations where inefficient products are commonly used and are encouraged by energy price subsidies or other factors. Setting import duties in a way that favours more efficient equipment is one way to encourage electricity conservation.



8 Action plan

The action plan can be carried in a series of activities which can be subdivided into a number of categories as follows:

Type of Action Action Lead Institution
I: Policy and

planning

I.1 Minimization of environmental impacts of energy related activities by

Formulation of environmental management policy for coal mining

Formulation of environmental management policy for thermal power plants

Formulation of national energy conservation policy

Capacity building for technology assessment

Mandatory environmental and energy audits







Ministries of Environment and Mining

Ministry of Environment & Dept. of Energy

Dept. of Energy



MOE & DOE

MOE & DOT

I.2 Strengthening energy conservation initiatives

- Information collection, collation and dissemination

- Developing database on technical information

- Demonstration of energy efficient technologies

- Energy audits of select industrial units

- Education and training





National Energy Effi-ciency Centre (NEEC)

NEEC

NEEC

NEEC

NEEC

I.3 Adoption of appropriate energy conservation laws and regulations to ensure

- Government support for RD & D activities, energy audit and training programmes

- Provision of incentives to equipment manufacturers to increase the efficiency of their products

- Institution of financial incentives, and tax incentives for industry







DOE & NEEC



DOE & Ministry of Finance



DOE & Ministry of Finance

I.4 Bridge the gap between private investment and public benefits through alternative financial arrangements

- Institution of concessional financing schemes for energy conservation investments

- Subsidies, rebates, leasing of energy efficient equipment









MOF, DOE



Zimbabwe Electricity Authority (ZESA), DOE

I.5 Promote transfer of energy efficient technology:

- Research, development and demonstration projects to adapt foreign technologies



- Providing technical assistance, and selective financial assistance to manufacturers to encourage them to use efficient technologies

- Reduction in import duties on energy efficient equipments





NEEC & National Cleaner Technology Centre (NCTC)

NEEC & NCTC





DOE & MOF

II: Institutional

development

II.1 Setting up Environmental Monitoring Organization under administrative control of Ministry of Environment and Tourism to

- Prepare inventory of industries using coal directly and consequently releasing air pollutants

- Undertake environmental audit of thermal power plants to assess sources of pollution and potential of minimizing environmental impact

- Design and implement National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme to establish source-receptor linkages and update emission standards

- Undertake periodic monitoring of industrial sources of air pollution to ensure compliance with standards

- Prepare State of the Environment reports

MOE





MOE & Ministry of Mining



MOE & DOE





MOE







MOE & Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries (CZI)

MOE

II.2 Setting up Environmental Impact Assessment Division in Ministry of Environment and Tourism to

- Appraise EIA studies

- Provide support to other ministries and parastatals to integrate environmental concerns in developmental planning

- Monitor implementation of Environmental Management Plans proposed in EIA studies

- Prepare manuals for environmental impact assessment considering specific local situations and problems

- Institutionalize public hearings to ensure participation of the public in decision making

- Conduct carrying capacity studies

MOE
II.3 Setting-up National Energy Efficiency Centre (NEEC) to promote energy conservation for :

- Information dissemination and technical assistance

- Technology intermediation

- Financial intermediation

DOE, MOE & CZI
III: Enhanced

international

cooperation

Sourcing multilateral and bilateral funding and technical assistance in following areas :

* Education at professional levels in energy conservation

* Building information systems and networks

* Evaluating the environmental soundness of transferred or newly developed technologies

* Building up capabilities in technologies such as remote sensing, geographic information systems, and pollution monitoring to assess existing environmental quality

* Funding demonstration projects for energy efficient technologies

* Establishing national and regional databases with user- friendly access systems on technologies

* Organizing national and international debates on technology selection

* Building design capabilities in Zimbabwe through joint ventures

* Internalizing need for human resources development and training in all phases of technology transfer

MOF, MOE & DOE







Annex I: Evaluation of select combustion technologies

Sr. No. Technology Salient Features Drawbacks Emissions
A. Conventional technologies
1. Grate firing coal combustion Early systems used flat grate with manual feeding and ash removal Fractions of coal < 3 um cannot be utilized Ash contains high carbon
Later systems use moving grate or spreader stoker Uneven temperature distribution and fuel supply characteristics limit complete combustion through the furnace NOx emissions

relatively low

(200-300 ppm)

Oxidant stream is blown through layer of coal on grate Automation difficult to achieve
Rate of combustion is proportional to specific surface of coal particles High thermal productivity difficult to achieve
2. Pulverized fuel combustion In operation for more than 50 years Requires coal grinding Major portion of ash is carried away as particulates in flue gas (pulverized fuel ash or PFA)
Most large boilers employ this technique Ash tend to fuse at temperatures encountered in furnace NOx emissions high (500-700 ppm)
Pulverized coal < 200 um combusted in suspension No SOx emission prevention
Insensitive to coal quality
Furnace regulation relatively easy
High degree of uniform fuel combustion at relatively high temperature
B. Advanced coal combustion technologies
1. Atmospheric fluidised bed combustion Uses fluidised bed boilers with steam turbines Maximum boiler size in operation 120 MW electrical Low SOx and NOx emissions
Staged combustion No reduction in CO2 emission
Boilers operate at low temperatures compared to pulverized fuel fired boilers.

Hence less NOx emissions

(225-400 mg/NM3)

Limestone added into combustion process to control SO2

(> 90% removal)

Efficiency same as conventional boiler
2. Pressurized fluidised bed combustion Allows use of gas turbines to utilize the high pressure combustion gases Process being demonstrated commercially NO2 emission

145-575 mg/Nm3

(50-200 mg/MJ)

Coal and limestone fed at the base of bubbling bed combustor 90% sulphur removal
Coal burn at 800-900oC with 30-50% excess air and combustion efficiency more than 99%
3. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) Coal gasified in pressurized gasifier 99% sulphur removal
Gas cleaned to remove sulphur compounds, chlorides, ammonia, cyanide and solid particles
Facilitates production of pure elemental sulphur
Steam generated in cooling and gas turbine exhaust waste heat recovery boiler used in generating power







Annex II: NOx emissions from different combustion technologies

Sr. No. Process Temperature

oC

Total NOx emissions

as NO2 mg/MJ

N2O emission

mg/MJ

1. Pulverised fuel combustion (PFC)

1300


280-358


1-10
2. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC)

900


126-270


18-50
3. Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC)

850


90-203


27-48
4. Pressurized circulating fluidized bed combined cycle (PCFB-CC)



850




50-143




7-30
5. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)

1400


8-41


0-5
6. Toppling cycle (TC) 850 70 10







Annex III: Air pollutants from various electricity-generating technologies

Technology Conversion Efficiency

(percent)

Emissions
NOx SO2 CO2
(grams per kilowatt hour)
High-sulfur coal-fired steam plant

(without scrubbers)



36


4.3


21.1


889
High-sulfur coal-fired steam plant

(with scrubbers)



36


4.3


2.1


889
Low-sulfur coal-fired fluidized bed plant 32 0.3 1.2 975
Oil-fired steam plant

(uncontrolled)



33


1.4


1.6


794
Integrated gasification combined cycle plant

(coal gasification)



38


0.2


0.3


747
Gas turbine combined cycle plant

(current)



43


0.3


0


416
Gas turbine combined cycle plant

(advanced)



55


0.03


0


331







The figures in this table are for particular plants that are representative of ones in operation or under development. These plants operate under the following conditions:

fuel is coal with 2.5 percent sulfur content,

turbines are steam-injected gas type,

they use intercooled chemically recuperated gas turbine with reheat to improve the efficiency of converting exhaust steam into fuel energy.

Sources: Richard L. Ottinger et al., Environmental Costs of Electricity (New York : Oceana Publications, 1990); Jennifer Lowry, Applied Energy Systems, Arlington, Va., private communication, September 18, 1991; Meridian Corporation, "Energy System Emissions and Material Requirements", prepared for Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy, Department of Energy, Alexandria, Va., February 1989; Edwin Moore and Enrique Crousillat, "Prospects for Gas-Fueled Combined Cycle Power Generation in the Developing Countries," Energy Series paper No. 35, World Bank, Washington D.C., 1991; California Energy Commission, Fuels Report 1989 (Sacramento, Calif.: 1989)

Annex IV: Comparison of baghouse filters and electrostatic precipitators for control of suspended particulate matter emission from coal combustion

Baghouses Filters Electrostatic Precipitators
Constant size without affecting efficiency, assuming equipment is designed for worst conditions (maximum flow) Constant efficiency devices thus size affects efficiency
Relatively constant emissions for any flow rate Efficiency varies with flow rate
Pressure loss across the fabric filter will be approximately 1,500 pascals, not including ductwork. Requires higher fan power ESP pressure losses are usually between 125-500 pascals, not including ductwork
Pressure loss is an exponential function of gas flow Pressure loss varies slightly with changes in gas flow
Flow is divided among compartments to maintain system with variable flows through compartments Even gas flow distribution is critical to obtain design efficiency. Requires distribution devices.
Emissions are more constants as the grain loading and particle size vary. Best choice for producing low opacity plume under all conditions Particle size and grain loading will affect outlet emissions. Can produce zero capacity plume.
Percent sulfur and sheet resistivity do not affect fabric filter efficiency Efficiency vary as percent sulfur and resistivity fluctuate.
Below 260oC (cold side), temperature fluctuations do not affect efficiency Efficiency is sensitive to changes in gas temperature
Individual compartments can be isolated to allow on-line maintenance without curtailing boiler output For on-line maintenance one entire ESP must be removed from service. If two trains are used, shutting down one train for maintenance reduces efficiency or requires operation at reduced load.
Requires flue gas temperature control for fabric protection at low loads and high temperature excursions. New fibre glass fabric is not subject to fire at high temperature No practical upper temperature limit
Normal maintenance is comparable to ESP's. Bag replacement is a costly extra maintenance item. Normal maintenance is comparable to baghouse
Fewer ash hoppers and no sneakage baffles in hoppers More ash hoppers (more ash pick-up points). Hoppers have sneakage baffles.
Performing well in most coal-fired power plant applications since early 1970's. Being applied at an accelerating rate. Performance, maintenance, and operating costs still somewhat undetermined. Many units operating well in large plants. Proved performance and costs.







Annex V: Commercially available processes for the chemical cleaning of coal to remove sulphur before combustion

Process Chemical used Operating conditions Sulphur removed
Temp.

oC

Pressure

bar

Time

min.

Pyrite Organic
PETC-

oxidation

Air, calcium carbonate 150-200 55-69 60 95 13
Ames-wet

oxidation

Oxygen, sodium carbonate 150 20.7 60 80-90 20
Lodgement- oxidation Oxygen, calcium carbonate, ammonia 200 20.7 60 80-90 20
Arco-oxidation Oxygen, calcium carbonate,

promoter

120

343

21.7

16.07

60

60

88-98

65-89

0

23-30

TRW Mayers-

oxidation

Oxygen, ferric sulphate, acetone, calcium carbonate 100-130 3-6.1 300-480 84-99 0
JPL Chloinolsis-

oxidation

Chlorine, 1,1,1-trichloroethane 60-130 1-5.2 4.5 71-95 46-98
KVB-oxidation

displacement

Nitrogen dioxide, sodium hydroxide 100 1 3-6 60-100 30-50
Battle

hydrothermal-displacement

Sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, carbon dioxide 250-350 41-172 10-30 90-95 20-70
TRW Gravimelt-

displacement

Potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide 370 1 30 90 75
General electric

microwave

displacement

Sodium hydroxide N/A 1 0.5-1 90 50-70
Magnex-magnetic

suspectibility

Iron pentacarbonyl 170 1 30-120 57-92 0
IGT hydro-

desulphurisation

Hydrogen, Iron oxide 800 1 60 90% total sulphur
Chemical

communication

Ammonia 85 9.1 120 50-70







Annex VI: NOx control technologies

Technique NOx reduction

(%)

Low NOx Corner Firing Systems 25-40
Low NOx Corner Firing Systems + Separated over fire air 30-60
Pollution minimum burners 30-60
Re-burn + low NOx burners 40-75
Selective non-catalytic reduction + low NOx burners 50-75
Selective catalytic reduction 80-90